Thursday, December 12, 2013

According to this Wikipedia article on domestic violence, if that's what happened (what's happening) (which seems possible, since the police told me to get a 

restraining order), I should move immediately before they get me again.    Even if we have to pay more than $800/month for rent.  They talk here about lethality assessment for attempted domestic violence-related homicide, and

now I could have a diabetic leg amputation and roughly 50% of amputees die in 5 years.   They've been stalking me moment-to-moment 24/7 turning the volume up and

down on the loud TV in the next room all day and waking me up several times every night the whole time the podiatric surgeon told me to wear the new orthotic inserts for my shoes for the hallux limitus where they beat me and my big toenail came off and got ingrown & infected on the leg with the diabetic neuropathy.   He said, "I'm gonna beat your ass," and knocked me down three times. Dr. Wolpa said wear the new orthotics for an hour the first day, 2 hours the 2nd day, 3 hours the 3rd day, until I wore them full time and I couldn't even do that, they were so loud.  They were stalking me on the phone, computer, and security webcam, like they say battered women should call or email for help on a different phone or computer because the perpetrators stalk them hacking their electronics.   I'm at the library now; I couldn't do this there.  Me studying Computer Science at CSUEB while they're homeless criminals is just part of the abuse and the M.O.  Joan paid $200 for the orthotic shoe inserts made from castings of my feet because Anthem doesn't cover them, and I couldn't even follow the simple procedure correctly, or call Dr. Wolpa at Alta Bates (Herrick) Hospital back about the partial matrixectomy, another surgery he needs to do for the infected toe, for a whole month, they are on me every second-they never give me a moment's peace.  They've stolen lots of my best stuff while I was out.  I think they might be in a Mexican prison gang, one of them said, I was watching a video on You Tube, the Nuestra Familia, Mexican Mafia, Nortenos, Surenos, Black Guerilla Family, Aryan Resistance, DA killers, warden killers, they drew a swastika on my door and a Star of David on their door.   All of them are going to die in prison-they kill each other in their cells doing life for murder for quitting the gang.   Not my type of person.    I called the ADL and called him a "hate criminal" and I was going to email his video to DOJ FBI hate crime division in Oakland or S.F. Federal Building.    I wrote it up right after the diagnosis; I'll copy it out and send it to you.     Thanks for your time and apologies for spamming, but I'm crying.


Domestic violence

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Domestic violence
Classification and external resources
Family law
Marriage and other
equivalent or similar unions and status
Validity of marriages
Dissolution of marriages
Other issues
Private international law
The Family and the Criminal Code
(or Criminal Law)
Part of a series on
against men
Part of a series on
against women
Related topics
Domestic violence, also known as domestic abusespousal abusebatteringfamily violencedating abuse, and intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pattern of behavior which involves the abuse by one partner against another in an intimate relationship such as marriagecohabitation, dating or within the family.[1]Domestic violence can take many forms, including physical aggression or assault (hitting, kicking, biting, shoving, restraining, slapping, throwing objects, battery), or threats thereof; sexual abuseemotional abusecontrolling or domineering; intimidationstalking; passive/covert abuse (e.g., neglect); and economic deprivation.[1][2]
Alcohol consumption[3] and mental illness[4] can be co-morbid with abuse, and present additional challenges in eliminating domestic violence. Awareness, perception, definition and documentation of domestic violence differs widely from country to country, and from era to era.
Domestic violence and abuse is not limited to obvious physical violence. Domestic violence can also mean endangerment, criminal coercion, kidnapping, unlawful imprisonment, trespassing, harassment, and stalking.[5]
Laws on domestic violence vary by country. While it is generally outlawed in the Western World, this is not the case in many developing countries. For instance, in 2010, the United Arab Emirates's Supreme Court ruled that a man has the right to physically discipline his wife and children as long as he does not leave physical marks.[6] The social acceptability of domestic violence also differs by country. While in most developed countries domestic violence is considered unacceptable by most people, in many regions of the world the views are different: according to a UNICEF survey, the percentage of women aged 15–49 who think that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife under certain circumstances is, for example: 90% in Afghanistan and Jordan, 87% in Mali, 86% in Guinea and Timor-Leste, 81% in Laos, 80% in Central African Republic.[7] Refusing to submit to a husband's wishes is a common reason given for justification of violence in developing countries:[8] for instance 62.4% of women in Tajikistan justify wife beating if the wife goes out without telling the husband; 68% if she argues with him; 47.9% if she refuses to have sex with him.[9]
Traditionally, in most cultures, men had a legal right to use violence to "discipline" their wives. Although in the US and many European countries this right was removed from them in the late 19th/early 20th century, before the 1970s criminal arrests were very rare (occurring only in cases of extreme violence), and it was only in the 1990s that rigorous enforcement of laws against domestic violence became standard policy in Western countries.[10][11]




The definition of the term "domestic violence" varies, depending on the context in which it is used.[12] It may be defined differently in medical, legal, political or social contexts. The definitions have varied over time, and vary in different parts of the world. Traditionally, domestic violence was mostly associated with physical violence. For instance, according to the Merriam-Webster dictionary definition, domestic violence is: "the inflicting of physical injury by one family or household member on another; also: a repeated / habitual pattern of such behavior."[13] However, domestic violence today, as defined by international conventions and by governments, has a much broader definition, including sexual, psychological and economic abuse.
" “domestic violence” shall mean all acts of physical, sexual, psychological or economic violence that occur within the family or domestic unit or between former or current spouses or partners, whether or not the perpetrator shares or has shared the same residence with the victim".[14]
The Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women classifies violence against women into three categories: that occurring in the family (DV), that occurring within the general community, and that perpetrated or condoned by the State. Family violence is defined as follows:[15]
"Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry-related violence, marital rapefemale genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, non- spousal violence and violence related to exploitation".
The term "intimate partner violence" (IPV) is often used synonymously with domestic abuse or domestic violence. Family violence is a broader definition, often used to include child abuseelder abuse, and other violent acts between family members.[16]
Broad definitions of domestic violence are common today. For instance the Act XX on Domestic Violence 2006, in Malta, defines DV as follows:[17]
"domestic violence" means any act of violence, even if only verbal, perpetrated by a household member upon another household member and includes any omission which causes physical or moral harm to the other"
Terms such wife abuse, wife beating, and battering are descriptive terms that have lost popularity recently for several reasons:
  • There is acknowledgment that many victims are not actually married to the abuser, but rather cohabiting or in other arrangements.[18]
  • Abuse can take other forms than physical abuse. Other forms of abuse may be constantly occurring, while physical abuse happens occasionally. These other forms of abuse, that are not physical, also have the potential to lead to mental illnessself-harm, and even attempts at suicide.[19][20]
  • Males as well as females may be victims of domestic violence, and females as well as males can be the perpetrators.
  • All forms of domestic abuse can occur in same sex partnerships.
"Domestic violence" may also be the name of a specific criminal offense, in a Criminal Code of a jurisdiction, describing various criminal acts. It may also appear in the context of legislation that is not necessary criminal, but rather civil (providing for civil remedies, protection orders etc.). See, for example, Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005.

Government definitions[edit]

The US Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) defines domestic violence as a "pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over another intimate partner". The definition adds that domestic violence "can happen to anyone regardless of race, age, sexual orientation, religion, or gender", and can take many forms, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional, economic, and psychological abuse.[21]
The Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service in the United Kingdom in its "Domestic Violence Policy" uses domestic violence to refer to a range of violent and abusive behaviours, defining it as:
Patterns of behaviour characterised by the misuse of power and control by one person over another who are or have been in an intimate relationship. It can occur in mixed gender relationships and same gender relationships and has profound consequences for the lives of children, individuals, families and communities. It may be physical, sexual, emotional and/or psychological. The latter may include intimidation, harassment, damage to property, threats and financial abuse.[22]

Dynamics classification[edit]

Violence by a person against their intimate partner is often done as a way for controlling their partner, even if this kind of violence is not the most frequent.[23] Many types of intimate partner violence occur, including violence between gay and lesbian couples,[24] and by women against their male partners.[25]

Intimate partner violence types[edit]

Michael P. Johnson argues for four major types of intimate partner violence, which is supported by subsequent research and evaluation.[26][27][28][29] as well as independent researchers.[30][31][32]
Distinctions are made among the types of violence, motives of perpetrators, and the social and cultural context based upon patterns across numerous incidents and motives of the perpetrator. Types of violence identified by Johnson:[25][27][33][34]
  • Common couple violence (CCV) is not connected to general control behavior, but arises in a single argument where one or both partners physically lash out at the other.
  • Intimate terrorism (IT) may also involve emotional and psychological abuse. Intimate terrorism is one element in a general pattern of control by one partner over the other. Intimate terrorism is less common than common couple violence, more likely to escalate over time, not as likely to be mutual, and more likely to involve serious injury.[25][33][35][36][37] IT batterers include two types: "Generally-violent-antisocial" and "dysphoric-borderline". The first type includes people with general psychopathic and violent tendencies. The second type are people who are emotionally dependent on the relationship.[25][38] Support for this typology has been found in subsequent evaluations.[39][40]
  • Violent resistance (VR), sometimes thought of as "self-defense", is violence perpetrated by victims against their abusive partners.[33][38][41][42][43]
  • Mutual violent control (MVC) is rare type of intimate partner violence occurring when both partners act in a violent manner, battling for control.[25][44]
Types of male batterers identified by Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994) include "family-only", which primarily fall into the CCV type, who are generally less violent and less likely to perpetrate psychological and sexual abuse.[45]


Others, such as the US Centers for Disease Control, divide domestic violence into two types: reciprocal, in which both partners are violent, and non-reciprocal violence, in which one partner is violent.[46][47]


Main article: Physical abuse
Azim Azimzade. "Husband beating his wife". 1937
Physical abuse is abuse involving contact intended to cause feelings of intimidation, pain, injury, or other physical suffering or bodily harm.
Physical abuse includes hitting, slapping, punching, choking, pushing, burning and other types of contact that result in physical injury to the victim. Physical abuse can also include behaviors such as denying the victim of medical care when needed, depriving the victim of sleep or other functions necessary to live, or forcing the victim to engage in drug/alcohol use against his/her will. If a person is suffering from any physical harm then they are experiencing physical abuse. This pain can be experienced on any level.[48] It can also include inflicting physical injury onto other targets, such as children or pets, in order to cause psychological harm to the victim.[49]


Main article: Sexual abuse
Sexual abuse is any situation in which force or threat is used to obtain participation in unwanted sexual activity. Coercing a person to engage in sexual activity against their will, even if that person is a spouse or intimate partner with whom consensual sex has occurred, is an act of aggression and violence.
  • any sexual act, attempt to obtain a sexual act, unwanted sexual comments or advances, or acts to traffic, or otherwise directed, against a person’s sexuality using coercionby any person regardless of their relationship to the victim, in any setting, including but not limited to home and work.[50]
Categories of sexual abuse include:
  1. Use of physical force to compel a person to engage in a sexual act against his or her will, whether or not the act is completed;
  2. Attempted or completed sex act involving a person who is unable to understand the nature or condition of the act, unable to decline participation, or unable to communicate unwillingness to engage in the sexual act, e.g., because of underage immaturity, illness, disability, or the influence of alcohol or other drugs, or because of intimidation or pressure.

Marital rape[edit]

Main article: Marital rape
Marital rape, also known as spousal rape, is non-consensual sex in which the perpetrator is the victim's spouse. It is a form of partner rape, of domestic violence, and of sexual abuse. Once widely condoned or ignored by law, spousal rape is now repudiated by international conventions and increasingly criminalized. Still, in many countries, spousal rape either remains legal, or is illegal but widely tolerated and accepted as a husband's prerogative.
The criminalization of rape in marriage is recent, having occurred during the past few decades. The legal and social concept of marital rape, has developed, in most industrialized countries, in the mid to late 20th century; and in many parts of the world it is still not recognized, socially and legally, as a form of abuse. Several countries in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia made spousal rape illegal before 1970, but other countries in Western Europe and the English-speaking Western World outlawed it much later, mostly in the 1980s and 1990s. In many parts of the world the laws against marital rape are very new, having been enacted in the 2000s.
In the US spousal rape is illegal in all 50 states.[51] In Canada, spousal rape was outlawed in 1983, when several legal changes were made, including changing the rape statute to sexual assault, and making the laws gender neutral.[52] Criminalization in Australia began with the state of New South Wales in 1981, followed by all other states from 1985 to 1992.[53] New Zealand outlawed spousal rape in 1985, andIreland in 1990.[53] In England and Wales, spousal rape was made illegal in 1991, when the marital rape exemption was abolished by the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords, in the case of R v R.[54]


Main article: Emotional abuse
Emotional abuse (also called psychological abuse or mental abuse) can include humiliating the victim privately or publicly, controlling what the victim can and cannot do, withholding information from the victim, deliberately doing something to make the victim feel diminished or embarrassed, isolating the victim from friends and family, implicitly blackmailing the victim by harming others when the victim expresses independence or happiness, or denying the victim access to money or other basic resources and necessities. Degradation in any form can be considered psychological abuse.
Emotional abuse can include verbal abuse and is defined as any behavior that threatens, intimidates, undermines the victim’s self-worth or self-esteem, or controls the victim’s freedom.[55] This can include threatening the victim with injury or harm, telling the victim that they will be killed if they ever leave the relationship, and public humiliation. Constant criticism, name-calling, and making statements that damage the victim’s self-esteem are also common verbal forms of emotional abuse.[56]
Often perpetrators will attempt and may succeed in alienating (parental alienation), a child from a parent or extended family member, and in doing so also victimize the child when the child is engaged in emotional abuse by encouraging, teaching or forcing them to harshly criticize another victim.[56] Emotional abuse includes conflicting actions or statements which are designed to confuse and create insecurity in the victim. These behaviors also lead the victims to question themselves, causing them to believe that they are making up the abuse or that the abuse is their fault.[49]
Emotional abuse includes forceful efforts to isolate the victim, keeping them from contacting friends or family. This is intended to eliminate those who might try to help the victim leave the relationship and to create a lack of resources for them to rely on if they were to leave. Isolation results in damaging the victim’s sense of internal strength, leaving them feeling helpless and unable to escape from the situation.[56]
People who are being emotionally abused often feel as if they do not own themselves; rather, they may feel that their significant other has nearly total control over them. Women or men undergoing emotional abuse often suffer from depression, which puts them at increased risk for suicideeating disorders, and drug and alcohol abuse.[57]


Main article: Verbal abuse
Verbal abuse is a form of emotionally abusive behavior involving the use of language. Verbal abuse can also be referred to as the act of threatening. Through threatening a person can blatantly say they will harm you in any way and will also be considered as abuse.[58] It may include profanity but can occur with or without the use of expletives.[citation needed]
Verbal abuse may include aggressive actions such as name-calling, blaming, ridicule, disrespect, and criticism, but there are also less obviously aggressive forms of verbal abuse. Statements that may seem benign on the surface can be thinly veiled attempts to humiliatefalsely accuse; or manipulate others to submit to undesirable behavior, make others feel unwanted and unloved, threaten others economically, or isolate victims from support systems.[59]
In Jekyll and Hyde behaviors, the abuser may fluctuate between sudden rages and false joviality toward the victim; or may simply show a very different "face" to the outside world than to the victim. While oral communication is the most common form of verbal abuse, it includes abusive communication in written form.[citation needed]


Main article: Economic abuse
Economic abuse is a form of abuse when one intimate partner has control over the other partner's access to economic resources.[60] Economic abuse may involve preventing a spouse from resource acquisition, limiting the amount of resources to use by the victim, or by exploiting economic resources of the victim.[60][61] The motive behind preventing a spouse from acquiring resources is to diminish victim's capacity to support his/herself, thus forcing him/her to depend on the perpetrator financially, which includes preventing the victim from obtaining education, finding employment, maintaining or advancing their careers, and acquiring assets.[60][61][62]
In addition, the abuser may also put the victim on an allowance, closely monitor how the victim spends money, spend victim's money without his/her consent and creating debt, or completely spend victim's savings to limit available resources[60][61][62]

Specific forms in parts of the world[edit]

In some parts of the world, specific forms of domestic violence, such as honor killingsacid attacks and dowry violence, are common.

Honor killings[edit]

Main article: Honor killing
An honor killing is the homicide of a member of a family or social group by other members, due to the belief of the perpetrators that the victim has brought dishonor upon the family or community. Although these crimes are most often associated with the Middle East, they occur in other places too.[63]
Human Rights Watch defines "honor killings" as follows:
Honor killings are acts of vengeance, usually death, committed by male family members against female family members, who are held to have brought dishonor upon the family. A woman can be targeted by (individuals within) her family for a variety of reasons, including: refusing to enter into an arranged marriage, being the victim of a sexual assault, seeking a divorce—even from an abusive husband—or (allegedly) committing adultery. The mere perception that a woman has behaved in a way that "dishonors" her family is sufficient to trigger an attack on her life.[64]

Acid throwing[edit]

Acid attack victim in Cambodia
Main article: Acid throwing
Acid throwing, also called an acid attack [65] or vitriolage is defined as the act of throwing acid onto the body of a person "with the intention of injuring or disfiguring [them] out of jealousy or revenge".[66] Perpetrators of these attacks throw acid at their victims, usually at their faces, burning them, and damaging skin tissue, often exposing and sometimes dissolving the bones.[67] The long term consequences of these attacks include blindness and permanent scarring of the face and body.[68][69][70] Acid attacks are often connected to domestic disputes in places such as Pakistan and Bangladesh.[71][72][73][74] In India, these attacks also happen in connection to dowry murders.[75]
Anti dowry poster in Bangalore, India
These attacks are most often associated with South and Southeast Asia (especially Cambodia,[76] Afghanistan,[77] India,[78] Bangladesh,[68][69] Pakistan,[68]) but are also common in other places, such as Colombia,[79] and have also occurred in Europe.[80] In the UK, the case of Katie Piper, who had acid thrown in her face by her ex-boyfriend and an accomplice, was highly publicized.

Dowry violence and bride burning[edit]

Main articles: Dowry death and Bride burning
In parts of the world, such as South Asia, the custom of dowry is related to severe forms of violence, including murderBride burning is a form of domestic violence in which a bride is killed at home by her husband or husband's family due to his dissatisfaction over the dowry provided by her family. The act is often a result of demands for more or prolonged dowry after the marriage.[81] It is a major problem in countries such as IndiaDowry death refers to the phenomenon of women and girls being killed or committing suicide due to disputes regarding dowry.

Violence against victims of rape[edit]

In many cultures, victims of rape face severe violence, including honor killings, from their families and relatives. In many parts of the world, women who have been raped are considered to have brought 'dishonour' or 'disgrace' to their families.[82] This is especially the case if the victim becomes pregnant.[83]

Violence related to female virginity[edit]

Female virginity is the trigger of many forms of violence against womenSex outside marriage is illegal in many countries, including Saudi Arabia, Pakistan,[84]Afghanistan,[85][86][87] Iran,[87] Kuwait,[88] Maldives,[89] Morocco,[90] Oman,[91] Mauritania,[92] United Arab Emirates,[93][94] Qatar,[95] Sudan,[96] Yemen.[97] In many parts of the world, the social expectation for a bride to be a virgin is extremely strong, and if the husband has sex with his wife after marriage and she does not bleed (it is possible for a woman to not bleed when she has sex for the first time [98]), this can end in extreme violence, including an honor killing.[99][100]

Social views on domestic violence[edit]

Woman wearing burqa in Afghanistan. A survey in Afghanistan showed that a majority of women agree that a husband is justified to beat his wife if she wears inappropriate clothes.[101]
The social views on DV vary from person to person, and from region to region, but in many places outside the West, the concept in very poorly understood. This is because in most of these countries, the relation between the husband and wife is not considered one of equals, but instead one in which the wife must submit herself to the husband. This is codified in the laws of some countries - for example, inYemen, marriage regulations state that a wife must obey her husband and must not leave home without his permission.[102] "Disobeying" a husband can often result in violence. These violent acts are not considered a form of abuse by society (both men and women) but are considered as being provoked by the behavior of the wife who is seen as being at fault herself. While beatings of wives are often a response to "inappropriate" behaviors, in many places extreme acts such as honor killings are approved by a high section of the society. In one survey, 33.4% of teenagers in Jordan's capital city, Amman, approved of honor killings. This survey was carried in the capital of Jordan, which is much more liberal the other parts of the country; the researchers said that "We would expect that in the more rural and traditional parts of Jordan, support for honour killings would be even higher".[103]
In a 2012 news story, The Washington Post reported, "The Reuters TrustLaw group named India one of the worst countries in the world for women this year, in part because domestic violence there is often seen as deserved. A 2012 report by UNICEF found that 57 percent of Indian boys and 53 percent of girls between the ages of 15 and 19 think wife-beating is justified."[104]
In conservative cultures, a wife dressing in attire deemed to be not sufficiently modest can result in serious violence by her husband or relatives, with such violent responses being seen as appropriate by most of the society: in a survey, 62.8% of women in Afghanistan said that a husband is justified to beat his wife if she wears inappropriate clothes.[101]
In many places, sex in marriage is constructed as the right of the husband, who can claim it by force, if "necessary".[105] For instance, in Lebanon, while discussing a proposed law that would criminalize marital rape, Sheik Ahmad Al-Kurdi, a judge in the Sunni religious court, said that the law "could lead to the imprisonment of the man where in reality he is exercising the least of his marital rights."[106] In many countries, women are instructed before marriage that sex with the husband is their absolute duty, that they do not have the right to ever refuse it, even if they don't want it; and as a result it becomes impossible to understand the concept of marital rape - for example one survey found that 74% of women in Mali said that a husband is justified to beat his wife if she refuses to have sex with him.[107]


On children[edit]

3.3 million children witness domestic violence each year in the US. There has been an increase in acknowledgment that a child who is exposed to domestic abuse during their upbringing will suffer in their developmental and psychological welfare.[108] During the mid 1990s, the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study found that children who were exposed to domestic violence and other forms of abuse had a higher risk of developing mental and physical health problems.[109] Because of the awareness of domestic violence that some children have to face, it also generally impacts how the child develops emotionally, socially, behaviorally as well as cognitively.[110]
Some emotional and behavioral problems that can result due to domestic violence include increased aggressiveness, anxiety, and changes in how a child socializes with friends, family, and authorities.[108]Depression, emotional insecurity, and mental health disorders can follow due to traumatic experiences.[111] Problems with attitude and cognition in schools can start developing, along with a lack of skills such as problem-solving.[108] Correlation has been found between the experience of abuse and neglect in childhood and perpetrating domestic violence and sexual abuse in adulthood.[112]
Additionally, in some cases the abuser will purposely abuse the mother or father[113] in front of the child to cause a ripple effect, hurting two victims simultaneously.[113] It has been found that children who witness mother-assault are more likely to exhibit symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).[114] Consequences to these children are likely to be more severe if their assaulted mother develops post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and does not seek treatment due to her difficulty in assisting her child with processing his or her own experience of witnessing the domestic violence.[115]
Family Violence prevention in Australia and other countries has begun to focus on breaking intergenerational cycles, according to the National (Aust) Standards for Working with Children Exposed to Family Violence it is important to acknowledge that exposing children to Family Violence is child abuse.[116] Some of the effects of Family Violence on children are highlighted in the Queensland Government andSunnyKids awareness raising campaign.[117]


Bruises, broken bones, head injuries, lacerations, and internal bleeding are some of the acute effects of a domestic violence incident that require medical attention and hospitalization.[118] Some chronic health conditions that have been linked to victims of domestic violence are arthritis, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pain, pelvic pain, ulcers, and migraines.[119] Victims who are pregnant during a domestic violence relationship experience greater risk of miscarriage, pre-term labor, and injury to or death of the fetus.[118]


Among victims who are still living with their perpetrators high amounts of stress, fear, and anxiety are commonly reported. Depression is also common, as victims are made to feel guilty for ‘provoking’ the abuse and are frequently subjected to intense criticism. It is reported that 60% of victims meet the diagnostic criteria for depression, either during or after termination of the relationship, and have a greatly increased risk of suicidality.[120]
In addition to depression, victims of domestic violence also commonly experience long-term anxiety and panic, and are likely to meet the diagnostic criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder. The most commonly referenced psychological effect of domestic violence is Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). PTSD (as experienced by victims) is characterized by flashbacks, intrusive images, exaggerated startle responsenightmares, and avoidance of triggers that are associated with the abuse.[121] These symptoms are generally experienced for a long span of time after the victim has left the dangerous situation. Many researchers state that PTSD is possibly the best diagnosis for those suffering from psychological effects of domestic violence, as it accounts for the variety of symptoms commonly experienced by victims of trauma.


Once victims leave their perpetrator, they can be stunned with the reality of the extent to which the abuse has taken away their autonomy. Due to economic abuse and isolation, the victim usually has very little money of their own and few people on whom they can rely when seeking help. This has been shown to be one of the greatest obstacles facing victims of DV, and the strongest factor that can discourage them from leaving their perpetrators.[122]
In addition to lacking financial resources, victims of DV often lack specialized skills, education, and training that are necessary to find gainful employment, and also may have several children to support. In 2003, thirty-six major US cities cited DV as one of the primary causes of homelessness in their areas.[123] It has also been reported that one out of every three homeless women are homeless due to having left a DV relationship. If a victim is able to secure rental housing, it is likely that her apartment complex will have "zero tolerance" policies for crime; these policies can cause them to face eviction even if they are the victim (not the perpetrator) of violence.[123] While the number of shelters and community resources available to DV victims has grown tremendously, these agencies often have few employees and hundreds of victims seeking assistance which causes many victims to remain without the assistance they need.[122]


Domestic violence can trigger many different responses in victims, all of which are very relevant for any professional working with a victim. Major consequences of domestic violence victimization include psychological/mental health issues and chronic physical health problems.[124] Some long term effects on a child who comes from an abusive household, or have been abused themselves are guilt, anger, depression/anxiety, shyness, nightmares, disruptiveness, irritability,and problems getting along with others. Although they may have not been the ones being abused it still affects them because they had to experience and witness their loved ones being abused, which takes a toll on them as well. Domestic violence also teaches poor family structure. A child who grows up being abused thinks of that as a way a family functions, and will grow up and repeat the cycle because that is all they know. Some other long term affects include but are not limited to poor health, low self-esteem, difficulty sleeping, drug and alcohol abuse risk, isolation, suicidal thoughts, and extreme loneliness and fear. A victim’s overwhelming lack of resources can also lead to homelessness and poverty. A person who has suffered abuse is at risk for a lot of negative consequences that can put them on a destructive path for their future. [125][126]

On responders[edit]

Vicarious trauma[edit]

Due to the gravity and intensity of hearing victims’ stories of abuse, professionals (social workers, police, counselors, therapists, advocates, medical professionals) are at risk themselves for secondary or vicarious trauma (VT), which causes the responder to experience trauma symptoms similar to the original victim after hearing about the victim’s experiences with abuse.[127] Research has demonstrated that professionals who experience vicarious trauma show signs of exaggerated startle response, hypervigilance, nightmares, and intrusive thoughts although they have not experienced a trauma personally and do not qualify for a clinical diagnosis of PTSD.[127]
Researchers concluded that although clinicians have professional training and are equipped with the necessary clinical skills to assist victims of domestic violence, they may still be personally affected by the emotional impact of hearing about a victim’s traumatic experiences. Iliffe et al. found that there are several common initial responses that are found in clinicians who work with victims: loss of confidence in their ability to help the client, taking personal responsibility for ensuring the client’s safety, and remaining supportive of the client’s autonomy if they make the decision to return to their perpetrator.[127]
It has also been shown that clinicians who work with a large number of victims may alter their former perceptions of the world, and begin to doubt the basic goodness of others. Iliffe et al. found that clinicians who work with victims tend to feel less secure in the world, become "acutely aware" of power and control issues both in society and in their own personal relationships, have difficulty trusting others, and experience an increased awareness of gender-based power differences in society.[127]
The best way for a clinician to avoid developing VT is to engage in good self-care practices. These can include exercise, relaxation techniques, debriefing with colleagues, and seeking support from supervisors.[127] Additionally, it is recommended that clinicians make the positive and rewarding aspects of working with domestic violence victims the primary focus of thought and energy, such as being part of the healing process or helping society as a whole. Clinicians should also continually evaluate their empathic responses to victims, in order to avoid feelings of being drawn into the trauma that the victim experienced. It is recommended that clinicians practice good boundaries, and find a balance in expressing empathic responses to the victim while still maintaining personal detachment from their traumatic experiences.[127]


Vicarious trauma can lead directly to burnout, which is defined as "emotional exhaustion resulting from excessive demands on energy, strength, and personal resources in the work setting".[128] The physical warning signs of burnout include headaches, fatigue, lowered immune function, and irritability.[129] A clinician experiencing burnout may begin to lose interest in the welfare of clients, be unable to empathize or feel compassion for clients, and may even begin to feel aversion toward the client.[128]
If the clinician experiencing burnout is working with victims of domestic violence, the clinician risks causing further great harm through re-victimization of the client. It should be noted, however, that vicarious trauma does not always directly lead to burnout and that burnout can occur in clinicians who work with any difficult population – not only those who work with domestic violence victims.


There are many different theories as to the causes of domestic violence. These include psychological theories that consider personality traits and mental characteristics of the perpetrator, as well as social theories which consider external factors in the perpetrator's environment, such as family structure, stress,and social learning. As with many phenomena regarding human experience, no single approach appears to cover all cases.
Whilst there are many theories regarding what causes one individual to act violently towards an intimate partner or family member there is also growing concern around apparent intergenerational cycles of domestic violence. In Australia where it has been identified that as many as 75% of all victims of domestic violence are children[130] Domestic violence services such as Sunnykids are beginning to focus their attention on children who have been exposed to domestic violence.[131]
Responses that focus on children suggest that experiences throughout life influence an individuals' propensity to engage in family violence (either as a victim or as a perpetrator). Researchers supporting this theory suggest it is useful to think of three sources of domestic violence: childhood socialization, previous experiences in couple relationships during adolescence, and levels of strain in a person's current life. People who observe their parents abusing each other, or who were themselves abused may incorporate abuse into their behaviour within relationships that they establish as adults. (Kalmuss & Seltzer 1984)


These factors include genetics and brain dysfunction and are studied by neuroscience.[132]


Psychological theories focus on personality traits and mental characteristics of the offender. Personality traits include sudden bursts of anger, poor impulse control, and poor self-esteem. Various theories suggest that psychopathology and other personality disorders are factors, and that abuse experienced as a child leads some people to be more violent as adults. Correlation has been found between juvenile delinquency and domestic violence in adulthood.[133] Studies have found high incidence of psychopathy among abusers.[134][135][136]
For instance, some research suggests that about 80% of both court-referred and self-referred men in these domestic violence studies exhibited diagnosable psychopathology, typically personality disorders. "The estimate of personality disorders in the general population would be more in the 15–20% range [...] As violence becomes more severe and chronic in the relationship, the likelihood of psychopathology in these men approaches 100%."[4] Dutton has suggested a psychological profile of men who abuse their wives, arguing that they have borderline personalities that are developed early in life.[137][138]
However, these psychological theories are disputed: Gelles suggests that psychological theories are limited, and points out that other researchers have found that only 10% (or less) fit this psychological profile. He argues that social factors are important, while personality traits, mental illness, or psychopathy are lesser factors.[139][140][141]

Mental illness[edit]

Many psychiatric disorders are risk factors for domestic violence, including several personality disorders: all Cluster B PDs, (especially antisocial), paranoid and passive-aggressiveBipolar disorder,schizophreniadrug abusealcoholism and poor impulse control are also risk factors.[2][142] It is estimated that at least one-third of all abusers have some type of mental illness.[143]

Marital conflict disorder[edit]

The American Psychiatric Association planning and research committees for the forthcoming DSM-5 (2013) have canvassed a series of new Relational disorders which include Marital Conflict Disorder Without Violence or Marital Abuse Disorder (Marital Conflict Disorder With Violence).[144] Couples with marital disorders sometimes come to clinical attention because the couple recognize long-standing dissatisfaction with their marriage and come to the clinician on their own initiative or are referred by an astute health care professional. Secondly, there is serious violence in the marriage which is "usually the husband battering the wife".[145]
In these cases the emergency room or a legal authority often is the first to notify the clinician. Most importantly, marital violence "is a major risk factor for serious injury and even death and women in violent marriages are at much greater risk of being seriously injured or killed (National Advisory Council on Violence Against Women 2000)".[146] The authors of this study add that "There is current considerable controversy over whether male-to-female marital violence is best regarded as a reflection of male psychopathology and control or whether there is an empirical base and clinical utility for conceptualizing these patterns as relational."[146]
Recommendations for clinicians making a diagnosis of Marital Relational Disorder should include the assessment of actual or "potential" male violence as regularly as they assess the potential for suicide in depressed patients. Further, "clinicians should not relax their vigilance after a battered wife leaves her husband, because some data suggest that the period immediately following a marital separation is the period of greatest risk for the women. Many men will stalk and batter their wives in an effort to get them to return or punish them for leaving. Initial assessments of the potential for violence in a marriage can be supplemented by standardized interviews and questionnaires, which have been reliable and valid aids in exploring marital violence more systematically".[146]
The authors conclude with what they call "very recent information"[147] on the course of violent marriages which suggests that "over time a husband's battering may abate somewhat, but perhaps because he has successfully intimidated his wife. The risk of violence remains strong in a marriage in which it has been a feature in the past. Thus, treatment is essential here; the clinician cannot just wait and watch".[147] The most urgent clinical priority is the protection of the wife because she is the one most frequently at risk, and clinicians must be aware that supporting assertiveness by a battered wife may lead to more beatings or even death.[147]


Many cases of domestic violence occur due to jealousy when one partner is either suspected of being unfaithful or is planning to leave the relationship. It can also be seen in a situation where one partner is doing better than the other. For example: the woman being more successful than the husband.[148][149] An evolutionary psychology explanation of such cases of domestic violence against a woman is that they represent male attempts to control female reproduction and ensure sexual exclusivity through violence or the threat of violence. [148] [149] Though often jealousy is used as an excuse for the abusers behavior, most often it is just an excuse in order to exert more control over their partner and a blaming technique in order to isolate the victim further from friends and family.


Behavioral theories draw on the work of behavior analysts. Applied behavior analysis uses the basic principles of learning theory to change behavior. Behavioral theories of domestic violence focus on the use of functional assessment with the goal of reducing episodes of violence to zero rates.[150] This program leads to behavior therapy. Often by identifying the antecedents and consequences of violent action, the abusers can be taught self control.[151] Recently more focus has been placed on prevention and a behavioral prevention theory.[150]

Social theories[edit]

Looks at external factors in the offender's environment, such as family structure, stress, social learning, and includes rational choice theories.[152] Though these external factors may heighten the frequency and severity of violence, ultimately it is not the cause, but merely fueling the abusers need to seek control in their life else where and enacting that need for control in the only way that they can, which is against their partner.

Resource theory[edit]

Resource theory was suggested by William Goode (1971).[153] Women who are most dependent on the spouse for economic well being (e.g. homemakers/housewives, women with handicaps, the unemployed), and are the primary caregiver to their children, fear the increased financial burden if they leave their marriage. Dependency means that they have fewer options and few resources to help them cope with or change their spouse's behavior.[154]
Couples that share power equally experience lower incidence of conflict, and when conflict does arise, are less likely to resort to violence. If one spouse desires control and power in the relationship, the spouse may resort to abuse.[155] This may include coercion and threats, intimidation, emotional abuse, economic abuse, isolation, making light of the situation and blaming the spouse, using children (threatening to take them away), and behaving as "master of the castle".[156][157]

Social stress[edit]

Stress may be increased when a person is living in a family situation, with increased pressures. Social stresses, due to inadequate finances or other such problems in a family may further increase tensions.[158] Violence is not always caused by stress, but may be one way that some people respond to stress.[159][160] Families and couples in poverty may be more likely to experience domestic violence, due to increased stress and conflicts about finances and other aspects.[161] Some speculate that poverty may hinder a man's ability to live up to his idea of "successful manhood", thus he fears losing honor and respect. Theory suggests that when he is unable to economically support his wife, and maintain control, he may turn to misogynysubstance abuse, and crime as ways to express masculinity.[161]

Social learning theory[edit]

Social learning theory suggests that people learn from observing and modeling after others' behavior. With positive reinforcement, the behavior continues. If one observes violent behavior, one is more likely to imitate it. If there are no negative consequences (e. g. victim accepts the violence, with submission), then the behavior will likely continue. Often, violence is transmitted from generation to generation in a cyclical manner.[vague] [162][163][164]

Power and control[edit]

In abusive relationships, violence is posited to arise out of a need for power and control of one partner over the other. An abuser will use various tactics of abuse (e.g., physical, verbal, emotional, sexual or financial) in order to establish and maintain control over the partner.
Abusers' efforts to dominate their partners have been attributed to low self-esteem or feelings of inadequacy, unresolved childhood conflicts, the stress of poverty, hostility and resentment toward women (misogyny), hostility and resentment toward men (misandry), personality disorders, genetic tendencies and sociocultural influences, among other possible causative factors. Most authorities seem to agree that abusive personalities result from a combination of several factors, to varying degrees.
causalist view of domestic violence is that it is a strategy to gain or maintain power and control over the victim. This view is in alignment with Bancroft's "cost-benefit" theory that abuse rewards the perpetrator in ways other than, or in addition to, simply exercising power over his or her target(s). He cites evidence in support of his argument that, in most cases, abusers are quite capable of exercising control over themselves, but choose not to do so for various reasons.[165]
An alternative view is that abuse arises from powerlessness and externalizing/projecting this and attempting to exercise control of the victim. It is an attempt to 'gain or maintain power and control over the victim' but even in achieving this it cannot resolve the powerlessness driving it. Such behaviours have addictive aspects leading to a cycle of abuse or violence. Mutual cycles develop when each party attempts to resolve their own powerlessness in attempting to assert control.
Questions of power and control are integral to the widely utilized Duluth Domestic Abuse Intervention Project. They developed a "Power and Control Wheel" to illustrate this: it has power and control at the center, surrounded by spokes (techniques used), the titles of which include: coercion and threatsintimidationemotional abuseisolationminimizingdenying and blaming, using children, economic abuse, and male privilege.[166] The model attempts to address abuse by challenging the misuse of power by the perpetrator.
The power wheel model is not intended to assign personal responsibility, enhance respect for mutual purpose or assist victims and perpetrators in resolving their differences. Rather, it is an informational tool designed to help individuals understand the dynamics of power operating in abusive situations and identify various methods of abuse.
Critics of this model argue that it ignores research linking domestic violence to substance abuse and psychological problems.[167] Some modern research into the patterns in DV has found that women are more likely to be physically abusive towards their partner in relationships in which only one partner is violent,[46][47] which draws the effectiveness of using concepts like male privilege to treat domestic violence into question; however, it may still be valid in studying severe abuse cases, which are mostly male perpetrated.[47] However, modern research into predictors of injury from domestic violence suggests that the strongest predictor of injury by domestic violence is participation in reciprocal domestic violence.[168]

Gender aspects of abuse[edit]

The relationship between gender and domestic violence is a controversial topic. There continues to be debate about the rates at which each gender is subjected to domestic violence. Reasons for mixed findings include the limitations of existing survey tools (e.g., conflict tactics scale) to measure all relevant aspects of domestic violence and the use of disparate samples in studies.[169] Sociologists Michael P. Johnson and Kathleen J. Ferraro argue that the rate of domestic violence against men is often inflated due to the practice of including self-defense as a form of domestic violence.[170][171]
Gender differences in reporting violence have been cited as another explanation for mixed results.[169] A 2011 review article by Chan found evidence of gender-specific reporting patterns: men tended to under-report their own perpetration of domestic violence while women were more likely to under-report their victimization. Factors which according to the reviewed studies can lead women to under-report their partner's violence include financial or familial dependence on the abusive partner, the tendency to excuse or normalize the partner's violence with the reasoning that their partner really loves them, and self-blaming. By contrast, men who under-report their own violence may be influenced by the fear and avoidance of legal consequences, the tendency to blame their partner, and a narrative focus on their needs and emotions during reporting. Furthermore, cultural factors can influence men's under-reporting of their own violence. In cultures where machismo is prevalent and where men are considered the head of households in control of their family, wife battering may be not perceived as a serious behavior that needs to report.[169]
According to a 2004 survey in Canada, the percentages of males being physically or sexually victimized by their partners was 6% versus 7% for women. However, females reported higher levels of repeated violence and were more likely than men to experience serious injuries; 23% of females versus 15% of males were faced with the most serious forms of violence including being beaten, choked, or threatened with or having a gun or knife used against them. Also, 21% of women versus 11% of men were likely to report experiencing more than 10 violent incidents. Women who often experience higher levels of physical or sexual violence from their current partner, were 44%, compared with 18% of men to suffer from an injury. Cases in which women are faced with extremely abusive partners, results in the females having to fear for their lives due to the violence they had faced. In addition, statistics show that 34% of women feared for their lives, and 10% of men feared for theirs.[52]
A problem in conducting studies that seek to describe violence in terms of gender is the amount of silence, fear and shame that results from abuse within families and relationships. Another is that abusive patterns can tend to seem normal to those who have lived in them for a length of time. Similarly, subtle forms of abuse can be quite transparent even as they set the stage for further abuse seeming normal. Finally, inconsistent definition of what constitutes domestic violence makes definite conclusions difficult to reach when compiling the available studies.

Violence against women[edit]

Campaign against domestic violence inUganda
Although the exact rates are widely disputed, especially within the United States, there is a large body of cross-cultural evidence that women are subjected to domestic violence significantly more often than men.[171][172][173][174] In addition, there is broad consensus that women are more often subjected to severe forms of abuse and are more likely to be injured by an abusive partner.[173][174][175]
According to a report by the United States Department of Justice, a survey of 16,000 Americans showed 22.1% of women and 7.4% of men reported being physically assaulted by a current or former spouse, cohabiting partner, boyfriend or girlfriend, or date in their lifetime.[176] A 2010 survey of over 21,000 residents of England and Wales by the UK Home Office showed that 7% of women and 4% of men were victims of domestic abuse in the last year.[177] A study in the United States found that women were 13 times more likely than men to seek medical attention due to injuries related to spousal abuse.[178]
Women are more likely than men to be murdered by an intimate partner. Of those killed by an intimate partner about three quarters are female and about a quarter are male. In 1999 in the United States 1,218 women and 424 men were killed by an intimate partner,[179] and 1181 females and 329 males were killed by their intimate partners in 2005.[180][181] In England and Wales about 100 women are killed by partners or former partners each year while 21 men were killed in 2010.[182] In 2008, in France, 156 women and 27 men were killed by their intimate partner.[183]
The UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (1993) states that "violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women, which has led to domination over and discrimination against women by men and to the prevention of the full advancement of women, and that violence against women is one of the crucial social mechanisms by which women are forced into a subordinate position compared with men".[184][185]
In their study of severely violent couples, Neil Jacobson and John Gottman conclude that the frequency of violent acts is not as crucial as the impact of the violence and its function, when trying to understand spousal abuse; specifically, they state that the purpose of domestic violence is typically to control and intimidate, rather than just to injure.[186]
A recent study in South Asia, done in from 2010 to 2013, interviewed 10,000 men from a variety of countries. The study found that "...overall nearly half of those men interviewed reported using physical and/or sexual violence against a female partner, ranging from 26 percent to 80 percent across the sites. Nearly a quarter of men interviewed reported perpetrating rape against a woman or girl, ranging from 10 percent to 62 percent across the sites." [187]

Violence against men[edit]

Kalighat painting, "Woman Striking Man With Broom," CalcuttaIndia, 1875
Domestic violence against men refers to abuse against men or boys in an intimate relationship such as marriage, cohabitation, dating, or within a family.
Determining how many instances of domestic violence actually involve male victims is difficult. Male domestic violence victims may be reluctant to get help for various reasons.[188] Some studies have shown that women who assaulted their male partners were more likely to avoid arrest even when the male victim contacts police.[189]Another study examined the differences in how male and female batterers were treated by the criminal justice system. The study concluded that female intimate violence perpetrators are frequently viewed by law enforcement and the criminal justice system as victims rather than the actual offenders of violence against men.[190]Other studies have also demonstrated a high degree of acceptance of aggression against men by women.

Same-sex relationships[edit]

Domestic violence occurs in same-sex relationships. Gay and lesbian relationships have been identified as a risk factor for abuse in certain populations.[2] In an effort to be more inclusive, many organizations have made an effort to use gender-neutral terms when referring to perpetratorship and victimhood.
Historically, domestic violence has been seen as a heterosexual family issue and little interest has been directed at violence in same-sex relationships.[191] It has not been until recently, as the gay rights movement has brought the issues of gay and lesbian people into public attention, when research has been conducted on same-sex relationships. A 1999 analysis of nineteen studies of partner abuse concluded that "[r]esearch suggests that lesbians and gay men are just as likely to abuse their partners as heterosexual men,"[192] although the study also noted the uncertain nature of much of the contemporary research in the area.
People in homosexual relationships, however, face special obstacles in dealing with the issues that some researchers have labeled "the double closet". A recent Canadian study by Mark W. Lehman[193] suggests similarities include frequency (approximately one in every four couples); manifestations (emotional, physical, financial, etc.); co-existent situations (unemployment, substance abuse, low self-esteem); victims' reactions (fear, feelings of helplessness, hypervigilance); and reasons for staying (love, can work it out, things will change, denial). At the same time, significant differences, unique issues and deceptive myths are typically present.[193]
Lehman points to added discrimination and fear gay and lesbian people can face. This includes potential dismissal by police and some social services, a lack of support from peers who would rather keep quiet about the problem in order not to attract negative attention toward the gay community, the impacts of HIV status or AIDS in keeping partners together, due to health care insurance/access, or guilt; outing used as a weapon, and encountering supportive services that are targeted and/or structured for the needs of heterosexual women and which may not meet the needs of gay men or lesbians. However Lehman himself noted that "due to the limited number of returned responses and non-random sampling methodology the findings of this work are not generalizable beyond the sample" of 32 initial respondents and final 10 who completed the more in-depth survey.[193]

Cycle of abuse[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2013)
Main article: Cycle of abuse
Frequently, domestic violence is used to describe specific violent and overtly abusive incidents, and legal definitions will tend to take this perspective. However, when violent and abusive behaviours happen within a relationship, the effects of those behaviours continue after these overt incidents are over. Advocates and counsellors will refer to domestic violence as a pattern of behaviours, including those listed above.
Lenore Walker presented the model of a Cycle of abuse which consists of three basic phases:
Tension Building Phase
Characterized by poor communication, tension, fear of causing outbursts. During this stage the victims may try to calm the abuser down, try to not do anything that would set the abuser off, and to avoid any major violent confrontations.
Violent Episode
Characterized by outbursts of violent, abusive incidents. During this stage the abuser attempts to dominate his/her partner(victim), with the use of domestic violence.
Honeymoon Phase
Characterized by affection, apology, and apparent end of violence. During this stage the abuser feels overwhelming feelings of remorse and sadness. Some abusers walk away from the situation, while others shower their victims with love and affection.
Although it is easy to see the outbursts of the Violent Episode Phase as abuse, even the more pleasant behaviours of the Honeymoon Phase serve to perpetuate the abuse.
Many domestic violence advocates believe that the cycle of abuse theory is limited and does not reflect the realities of many men and women experiencing domestic violence.


The management of domestic violence differs between societies, and has a very important role in ensuring the well being of the victims and preventing their re-victimization.
The response to domestic violence in Western countries is typically a combined effort between law enforcement, social services, and health care. The role of each has evolved as domestic violence has been brought more into public view.
Domestic violence historically has been viewed as a private family matter that need not involve the government or criminal justice.[194] Police officers were often reluctant to intervene by making an arrest, and often chose instead to simply counsel the couple and/or ask one of the parties to leave the residence for a period of time. The courts were reluctant to impose any significant sanctions on those convicted of domestic violence, largely because it was viewed as a misdemeanor offense.[citation needed]
The modern view in industrialized countries is that domestic violence should be viewed as a public matter and all criminal authority should be involved; that once the violence is reported it should be taken seriously.

Medical response[edit]

Medical professionals can make a difference in the lives of those who experience abuse. Many cases of spousal abuse are handled solely by physicians and do not involve the police. Sometimes cases of domestic violence are brought into the emergency room,[195] while many other cases are handled by a family physician or other primary care provider.[196] Subspecialist physicians are also increasingly playing an important role. For example, HIV physicians are ideally suited to play an important role in managing abuse given the association between abuse and HIV infection as well as their often lifelong relationships with patients.[2]

Duluth model[edit]

See also: Duluth model
The Duluth Model or Domestic Abuse Intervention Project is a program developed to reduce domestic violence against women.[197] The Duluth model was developed by Minnesota Program Development, Inc., a nonprofit agency in Duluth, Minnesota. The program was largely founded by social activist Ellen Pence. The Duluth Model is featured in the documentary Power and Control: Domestic Violence in America.[198]
The Domestic Abuse Intervention Project was the first multi-disciplinary program designed to address the issue of domestic violence. This experimental program, conducted in Duluth, Minnesota in 1981, coordinated the actions of a variety of agencies dealing with domestic conflict. The program has become a model for programs in other jurisdictions seeking to deal more effectively with domestic violence.[199]
According to the Duluth Model, "women and children are vulnerable to violence because of their unequal social, economic, and political status in society".[200]
The Duluth Model is based on a "violence is patriarchal" model. The model focuses solely on the men's use of violence in abusive relationships, rather than on the behavior of all parties concerned. This helps the men to focus on changing their personal behavior in order to be nonviolent in any relationship.

Law enforcement response[edit]

Law enforcement response to intimate partner violence has varied over time and across jurisdictions. Until the 1980s, U.S. law enforcement policies and practices emphasized not using arrest, prosecution or other legal sanctions. In most U.S. jurisdictions, law enforcement officers were not even authorized to make arrests for any misdemeanor assault, unless it occurred in their presence. In addition, it was widely believed that domestic disturbance calls were the most dangerous type of call for responding officers. This belief was based on FBI statistics which turned out to be flawed, in that they grouped all types of disturbances together with domestic disturbances, such as brawls at a bar.[201][202] This false belief led to development of programs that trained police officers to first separate intimate partners and to counsel them. The objective of this program was to reduce assaults against and injuries to law enforcement officers.
Based on legal suits, social research and changing attitudes about the role of women and the social acceptable of the use of violence, law enforcement policies and practices in the U.S. have changed toward encouraging and, in some cases, mandating the use of legal sanctions for intimate partner violence. Many U.S. states have adopted legislation mandating the use of arrest for at least some types of intimate partner violence. In addition, the Federal Violence Against Women Act, first adopted in 1994, promotes the use of arrest and prosecution of intimate partner violence by state and local agencies.

Counseling for person affected[edit]

Due to the extent and prevalence of violence in relationships, counselors and therapists should assess every client for domestic violence (both experienced and perpetrated). If the clinician is seeing a couple for couple’s counseling, this assessment should be conducted with each individual privately during the initial interview, in order to increase the victim’s sense of safety in disclosing DV in the relationship.[203]In addition to determining whether DV is present, counselors and therapists should also make the distinction between situations where battering may have been a single, isolated incident or an ongoing pattern of control. The therapist must, however, consider that domestic violence may be present even when there has been only a single physical incident as emotional/verbal, economic, and sexual abuse may be more insidious.[203]

Lethality assessment[edit]

A lethality assessment is a tool that can assist in determining the best course of treatment for a client, as well as helping the client to recognize dangerous behaviors and more subtle abuse in their relationship.[204] In a study of victims of attempted domestic violence-related homicide, only about one-half of the participants recognized that their perpetrator was capable of killing them, as many domestic violence victims minimize the true seriousness of their situation.[205] Thus, lethality assessment is an essential first step in assessing the severity of a victim’s situation.

Safety planning[edit]

Safety planning allows the victim to plan for dangerous situations they may encounter, and is effective regardless of their decision on whether remain with their perpetrator. Safety planning usually begins with determining a course of action if another acute incident occurs in the home. The victim should be given strategies for their own safety, such as avoiding confrontations in rooms where there is only one exit and avoiding certain rooms that contain many potential weapons (such as kitchens, bathrooms, etc.).[49]

Counseling for offenders[edit]

The main goal for treatment for offenders of domestic violence is to minimize the offender’s risk of future domestic violence, whether within the same relationship or a new one. Treatment for offenders should emphasize minimizing risk to the victim, and should be modified depending on the offender’s history, risk of reoffending, and criminogenic needs.[206][207] The majority of offender treatment programs are 24–36 weeks in length and are conducted in a group setting with groups not exceeding 12 participants.[208]

Prevention and intervention[edit]

There are many community organizations which work to prevent domestic violence by offering safe sheltercrisis intervention, advocacy, and education and prevention programs. Community screening for domestic violence can be more systematic in cases of animal abuse, healthcare settings, emergency departments, behavioral health settings and court systems. Tools are being developed to facilitate domestic violence screening such as mobile apps.[209][210]


Pregnancy, when coupled with domestic violence, may amplify health risks. Abuse during pregnancy, whether physical, verbal or emotional, produces adverse effects for both the mother and fetus. Domestic violence during pregnancy is categorized as abusive behavior towards a pregnant woman, where the pattern of abuse can often change in terms of severity and frequency of violence. Abuse may be a long-standing problem in a relationship that continues after a woman becomes pregnant or it may commence during pregnancy.[211] Although female-to-male partner violence occurs in these settings, the overwhelming form of domestic violence is perpetrated by men against women.[212]
Domestic abuse can be triggered by pregnancy for various reasons. Pregnancy itself can be used a form of coercion and the phenomenon of preventing an intimate partner’s reproductive choice is referred to as birth control sabotage, or reproductive coercion. Studies on the birth control sabotage performed by males against female partners have indicated a strong correlation between domestic violence and birth control sabotage.[213] Pregnancy can also lead to a hiatus of domestic violence when the abuser does not want to harm the unborn child. The risk of domestic violence for pregnant women is greatest immediately after childbirth.[214]
In 2010, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that 4.8% of women reported having had an intimate partner who tried to get them pregnant against their wishes, while 8.7% of men reported having had an intimate partner who tried to get pregnant against their wishes or tried to stop them from using birth control.[215]


New research illustrates that there are strong associations between exposure to domestic violence and abuse in all their forms and higher rates of many chronic conditions. The strongest evidence comes from the Adverse Childhood Experiences' series of studies which show correlations between exposure to abuse or neglect and higher rates in adulthood of chronic conditions, high risk health behaviors and shortened life span.[216] Evidence of the association between physical health and violence against women has been accumulating since the early 1990s.[217]
Studies have indicated that it is important to consider the effect of domestic violence and its psychophysiologic sequelae on women who are mothers of infants and young children. Several studies have shown that maternal interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can, despite traumatized mother's best efforts, interfere with their child's response to the domestic violence and other traumatic events.[218][219] Thus, practitioners and service agencies addressing the needs of domestic violence victims should assess the victim-as-parent and evaluate the safety and well-being of children in the home.
More recently work by such researchers as Corso[220] have begun to quantify the economic impact of exposure to violence and abuse. A recent publication, Hidden Costs in Health Care: The Economic Impact of Violence and Abuse, [221] makes the case that such exposure represents a serious and costly public health issue that should be addressed by the health care system.

Domestic violence around the world[edit]

In Iraq husbands have a legal right to "punish" their wives. The criminal code states at Paragraph 41 that there is no crime if an act is committed while exercising a legal right; examples of legal rights include: "The punishment of a wife by her husband, the disciplining by parents and teachers of children under their authority within certain limits prescribed by law or by custom".[222]
In Jordan, part of article 340 of the Penal Code states that "he who discovers his wife or one of his female relatives committing adultery and kills, wounds, or injures one of them, is exempted from any penalty."[223] This has twice been put forward for cancellation by the government, but was retained by the Lower House of the Parliament, in 2003: a year in which at least seven honor killings took place.[224]Article 98 of the Penal Code is often cited alongside Article 340 in cases of honor killings. "Article 98 stipulates that a reduced sentence is applied to a person who kills another person in a 'fit of fury'".[225]
In Russia, according to Russian interior ministry estimates, there are 600,000 women victims of domestic abuse every year and 14,000 die from injuries inflicted by husbands or partners each year. Domestic violence is not a specific criminal offense, but it can be charged under various crimes of the criminal code (e.g. assault), but in practice cases of domestic violence turn into criminal cases only when they involve severe injuries, or the victim has died.[226] For more details see Domestic violence in Russia.
A UN report compiled from a number of different studies conducted in at least 71 countries found domestic violence against women to be most prevalent in Ethiopia.[227]
A study on Bedouin women in Israel found that most have experienced DV, most accepted it as a decree from God, and most believed they were to blame themselves for the violence. The study also showed that the majority of women were not aware of existing laws and policies which protect them: 60% said they did not know what a restraining order was.[228]
In the European Union, DV is a serious problem in the Baltic States. These three countries - Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania - have also lagged behind most post-communist countries in their response to DV.[229] The problem in these countries is very severe, and in 2013 a DV victim won a European Court of Human Rights case against Lithuania.[230][231]

United States[edit]

Approximately 1.3 million women and 835,000 men are physically assaulted by an intimate partner annually in the United States.[232] In the United States, domestic violence is the leading cause of injury to women between the ages of 15 and 44.[233]
Victims of DV are offered legal remedies, which include the criminal law, as well as obtaining a protection order. The remedies offered can be both of a civil nature (civil orders of protection and other protective services) and of a criminal nature (charging the perpetrator with a criminal offense). People perpetrating DV are subject to criminal prosecution, most often under assault and battery laws. [12][234][235]


Domestic violence occurs across the world, in various cultures,[236] and affects people of all economic statuses.[18] According to one study, the percentage of women who have reported being physically abused by an intimate partner vary from 69% to 10% depending on the country.[237]


A 1992 Council of Europe study on domestic violence against women found that 1 in 4 women experience domestic violence over their lifetimes and between 6 and 10% of women suffer domestic violence in a given year.[citation needed]

North America[edit]

In the United States, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics in 1995 women reported a six times greater rate of intimate partner violence than men.[238][239] The National Crime Victimization Survey(NCVS) indicates that in 1998 about 876,340 violent crimes were committed in the U.S. against women by their current or former spouses, or boyfriends.[240] According to the Centers for Disease Control, in the United States 4.8 million women suffer intimate partner related physical assaults and rapes and 2.9 million men are victims of physical assault from their partners.[241]
In Canada, the Assembly of First Nations evaluation of the Canada Prenatal Nutrition Program conducted by CIET offers an inclusive and relatively unbiased national estimate. It documented domestic violence in a random sample of 85 First Nations across Canada: 22% (523/2359) of mothers reported suffering abuse in the year prior to being interviewed; of these, 59% reported physical abuse.[242]


Fighting the prevalence of domestic violence in Kashmir has brought Hindu and Muslim activists together.[243] Additionally, aspects of Islamic law have been criticized for promoting domestic violence[244]
One study found that half of Palestinian women have been the victims of domestic violence.[245]
The Human Rights Watch found that up to 90% of women in Pakistan were subject to some form of maltreatment within their own homes.[246] Honor killings in Pakistan are a very serious problem, especially in northern Pakistan.[247][248] In Pakistan, honour killings are known locally as karo-kari. Karo-kari is a compound word literally meaning "black male" (Karo) and "black female (Kari).
Domestic violence in India is widespread, and is often related to the custom of dowry.[249] Although not as common as in other parts of Asia, honor killings do occur in some regions of India, particularly in northern regions of the country. Honor killings have been reported in the states of PunjabRajasthanHaryana, Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar, as a result of people marrying without their family's acceptance, and sometimes for marrying outside their caste or religion.[250][251]
In Turkey 42% of women over 15 have suffered physical or sexual violence.[252]


Up to two-thirds of women in certain communities in Nigeria's Lagos State say they are victims to domestic violence.[253]
80% of women surveyed in rural Egypt said that beatings were common and often justified, particularly if the woman refused to have sex with her husband.[254]


Statistics published in 2004, show that the rate of domestic violence victimisation for Indigenous women in Australia may be 40 times the rate for non-Indigenous women.[255]


An illustration from JJ Grandville's Cent Proverbes (1845) captioned "Qui aime bien châtie bien" (Who loves well, punishes well).
Prior to the mid-1800s, most legal systems accepted wife beating as a valid exercise of a husband's authority over his wife.[256][257] One exception, however, was the 1641 Body of Liberties of the Massachusetts Bay colonists, which declared that a married woman should be "free from bodilie correction or stripes by her husband."[258]
Political agitation during the nineteenth century led to changes in both popular opinion and legislation regarding domestic violence within the United Kingdom and theUnited States.[256][259] In 1850, Tennessee became the first state in the United States to explicitly outlaw wife beating.[260][261] Other states soon followed suit.[257][262] In 1878, the Matrimonial Causes Act made it possible for women in the UK to seek separations from abusive husbands.[263] By the end of the 1870s, most courts in the United States were uniformly opposed to the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives.[264] By the early twentieth century, it was common for police to intervene in cases of domestic violence in the United States, but arrests remained rare.[265]
Modern attention to domestic violence began in the women's movement of the 1970s, particularly within the contexts of feminism and women's rights, as concern about wives being beaten by their husbands gained attention. The first known use of the expression "domestic violence" in a modern context, meaning "spouse abuse, violence in the home" was in an address to the Parliament of the United Kingdom in 1973. A few months later the world's first domestic violence services federation (Women's Aid) was set up in 1974, providing practical and emotional support as part of a range of services to women and children experiencing violence in England.[266][267] With the rise of the men's movement of the 1990s, the problem of domestic violence against men also gained significant attention.
Until quite recently, children had very few rights in regard to protection from violence by their parents, and still continue to do so in many parts of the world. Historically, fathers had virtually unlimited rights in regard to their children and how they chose to discipline them. In many cultures, such as in Ancient Rome, a father could legally kill his children; many cultures have also allowed fathers to sell their children into slaveryChild sacrifice was also a common practice.[268]Today, corporal punishment of children by their parents remains legal in most countries, but in Western countries that still allow the practice there are strict limits on what is permitted. The first country to outlaw parental corporal punishment was Sweden (parents' right to spank their own children was first removed in 1966,[269] and it was explicitly prohibited by law from July 1979).

See also[edit]

International human rights law


This article uses bare URLs for citations, which may be threatened by link rot. Please consider adding full citations so that the article remainsverifiableSeveral templates and the Reflinks tool are available to assist in formatting. (Reflinks documentation(July 2013)
  1. Jump up to:a b Shipway (2004)
  2. Jump up to:a b c d Siemieniuk, R. A. C.; Krentz, H. B.; Gish, J. A.; Gill, M. J. (2010). "Domestic Violence Screening: Prevalence and Outcomes in a Canadian HIV Population". AIDS Patient Care and STDs 24 (12): 763–770. doi:10.1089/apc.2010.0235.PMID 21138382. edit
  3. Jump up^ Markowitz, Sara (2000). "The Price of Alcohol, Wife Abuse, and Husband Abuse". Southern Economic Journal 67 (2): 279–303.doi:10.2307/1061471JSTOR 1061471.
  4. Jump up to:a b Dutton, D. G. (1994). "Patriarchy and wife assault: The ecological fallacy"Violence and victims 9 (2): 167–182.PMID 7696196. edit
  5. Jump up^ "Crimes". National Network to End Domestic Violence, Inc. 2008. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
  6. Jump up^ UAE Court Ruling
  7. Jump up^ "Statistics by Area - Attitudes towards wife-beating - Statistical table". Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  8. Jump up^ "Quality information to plan, monitor and improve population, health, and nutrition programs". Measure Dhs. 2013-04-04. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  9. Jump up^
  10. Jump up^
  11. Jump up^ Clarke, Kris. "The Paradoxical Approach to Intimate Partner Violence in Finland | Kris Clarke". Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  12. Jump up to:a b "Definitions of Domestic Violence". Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  13. Jump up^ Domestic Violence. Merriam Webster. Retrieved 14 Nov. 2011.
  14. Jump up^ "Council of Europe - Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (CETS No. 210)" Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  15. Jump up^ "A/RES/48/104. Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women". Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  16. Jump up^ Wallace, p. 2
  17. Jump up^
  18. Jump up to:a b Waits, Kathleen (1984-1985). "The Criminal Justice System's Response to Battering: Understanding the Problem, Forging the Solutions"Washington Law Review 60: 267–330.
  19. Jump up^ Shipway (2004), p. 3
  20. Jump up^ Mayhew, P., Mirlees-Black, C. and Percy, A. (1996). The 1996 British Crime Survey England & Wales. Home Office.
  21. Jump up^ "About Domestic Violence". Office on Violence Against Women. Retrieved 2007-06-13.
  22. Jump up^ "Domestic Violence Assessment Policy" (PDF). Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service. Archived from the original on 2007-11-30. Retrieved 2007-06-13.
  23. Jump up^ LAROCHE Denis, Context and Consequences of Domestic Violence Against Men and Women in Canada in 2004 p.35. 2004
  24. Jump up^ Renzetti, C. M. and C. H. Miley (1996). Violence in Gay and Lesbian Domestic Partnerships. Haworth Press. ISBN 1-56023-074-6OCLC 33947252.
  25. Jump up to:a b c d e Johnson, M. P.; Ferraro, K. J. (2000). "Research on Domestic Violence in the 1990s: Making Distinctions". Journal of Marriage and Family 62 (4): 948. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00948.x. edit
  26. Jump up^ Johnson, M. P. (2006). "Conflict and Control: Gender Symmetry and Asymmetry in Domestic Violence". Violence Against Women12 (11): 1003–1018. doi:10.1177/1077801206293328.PMID 17043363. edit
  27. Jump up to:a b Michael P. Johnson (1995). "Patriarchal Terrorism and Common Couple Violence: Two Forms of Violence against Women". Journal of Marriage and Family 57 (2): 283–294.doi:10.2307/353683JSTOR 353683.
  28. Jump up^ Johnson, M. P. (2006). Violence and abuse in personal relationships: Conflict, terror, and resistance in intimate partnerships. In A. L. Vangelisti & D. Perlman (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of personal relationships (pp. 557–576). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-82617-9
  29. Jump up^ Leone, J. M.; Johnson, M. P.; Cohan, C. L.; Lloyd, S. E. (2004). "Consequences of Male Partner Violence for Low-Income Minority Women". Journal of Marriage and Family 66 (2): 472.doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2004.00032.x. edit
  30. Jump up^ Graham-Kevan, N.; Archer, J. (2003). "Physical aggression and control in heterosexual relationships: The effect of sampling".Violence and victims 18 (2): 181–196. PMID 12816403. edit
  31. Jump up^ Graham-Kevan, N.; Archer, J. (2003). "Intimate terrorism and common couple violence. A test of Johnson's predictions in four British samples". Journal of interpersonal violence 18 (11): 1247–1270. PMID 19774764. edit
  32. Jump up^ Rosen, K. H.; Stith, S. M.; Few, A. L.; Daly, K. L.; Tritt, D. R. (2005). "A qualitative investigation of Johnson's typology".Violence and victims 20 (3): 319–334. PMID 16180370. edit
  33. Jump up to:a b c Johnson, M. P. (2000). "Conflict and Control: Images of Symmetry and Asymmetry in Domestic Violence". In Booth, A., A. C. Crouter, and M. Clements. Couples in Conflict. Erlbaum.ISBN 0-8058-3545-8.
  34. Jump up^ Tilbrook, E.; Allan, A.; Dear, G. (2010). "Intimate Partner Abuse of Men" (PDF). Men's Advisory Network. Perth, Western Australia: Edith Cowan University School of Psychology. Archived from the original on 2013-07-12. Retrieved 21 November 2010.
  35. Jump up^ Follingstad, D. R.; Rutledge, L. L.; Berg, B. J.; Hause, E. S.; Polek, D. S. (1990). "The role of emotional abuse in physically abusive relationships". Journal of Family Violence 5 (2): 107.doi:10.1007/BF00978514. edit
  36. Jump up^ Kirkwood, C. (1993). Leaving Abusive Partners: From the Scars of Survival to the Wisdom for Change. Sage. ISBN 0-8039-8686-6OCLC 29049176.
  37. Jump up^ Chang, V. N. (1996). I Just Lost Myself: Psychological Abuse of Women in Marriage. Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-95209-9.
  38. Jump up to:a b Jacobson, N. and J. Gottman (1998). When Men Batter Women: New Insights into Ending Abusive Relationships. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-81447-1OCLC 37748396.
  39. Jump up^ Hamberger, L. K.; Lohr, J. M.; Bonge, D.; Tolin, D. F. (1996). "A large sample empirical typology of male spouse abusers and its relationship to dimensions of abuse". Violence and victims 11(4): 277–292. PMID 9210273. edit
  40. Jump up^ Holtzworth-Munroe, A.; Meehan, J. C.; Herron, K.; Rehman, U.; Stuart, G. L. (2000). "Testing the Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994) batterer typology". Journal of consulting and clinical psychology 68 (6): 1000–1019. PMID 11142534. edit
  41. Jump up^ Browne, A.; Salomon, A.; Bassuk, S. S. (1999). "The Impact of Recent Partner Violence on Poor Women's Capacity to Maintain Work". Violence Against Women 5 (4): 393.doi:10.1177/10778019922181284. edit
  42. Jump up^ Roberts, A. R. (1996). "Battered women who kill: A comparative study of incarcerated participants with a community sample of battered women". Journal of Family Violence 11 (3): 291–304.doi:10.1007/BF02336946. edit
  43. Jump up^ Bachman, R.; Carmody, D. C. (1994). "Fighting fire with fire: The effects of victim resistance in intimate versus stranger perpetrated assaults against females". Journal of Family Violence 9 (4): 317. doi:10.1007/BF01531942. edit
  44. Jump up^ Saunders DG (1988). "Wife Abuse, Husband Abuse, or Mutual Combat? A Feminist Perspective on the Empirical Findings". In Bograd ML, Yllö K. Feminist perspectives on wife abuse. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. pp. 90–113. ISBN 0-8039-3053-4.
  45. Jump up^ Holtzworth-Munroe, A.; Stuart, G. L. (1994). "Typologies of male batterers: Three subtypes and the differences among them".Psychological bulletin 116 (3): 476–497. PMID 7809309. edit
  46. Jump up to:a b Whitaker, D. J.; Haileyesus, T.; Swahn, M.; Saltzman, L. S. (2007). "Differences in Frequency of Violence and Reported Injury Between Relationships with Reciprocal and Nonreciprocal Intimate Partner Violence". American Journal of Public Health 97(5): 941–947. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2005.079020.PMC 1854883PMID 17395835. edit
  47. Jump up to:a b c Straus, Murray A (23 May 2006). "Dominance and symmetry in partner violence by male and female university students in 32 nations" (PDF). Trends In Intimate Violence Intervention. New York University. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
  48. Jump up^ U.S Department of Justice (2007). "About Domestic Violence.".
  49. Jump up to:a b c "Arizona Coalition Against Domestic Violence". 2010.
  50. Jump up^ World Health Organization., World report on violence and health (Geneva: World Health Organization, 2002), 149.
  51. Jump up^ Spousal Rape Laws: 20 Years Later National Center for Victims of Crime. Retrieved 2011-11-18.
  52. Jump up to:a b O'Grady William (2011). Crime in Canadian Context: debates and controversies. Oxford University Press ISBN 0195433785.
  53. Jump up to:a b Jennifer Temkin, Rape and the legal process, Oxford University Press, 2002 ISBN 0198763549, p. 86.
  54. Jump up^ "[1991] UKHL 12"BAILII. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  55. Jump up^ Follingstad, D. R.; Dehart, D. D. (2000). "Defining Psychological Abuse of Husbands Toward Wives: Contexts, Behaviors, and Typologies". Journal of Interpersonal Violence 15 (9): 891.doi:10.1177/088626000015009001. edit
  56. Jump up to:a b c "National Coalition Against Domestic Violence". 2010.
  57. Jump up^ The Physical and Psychological Effects of Domestic Violence on (2006-09-07). Retrieved on 2012-06-25.
  58. Jump up^ "Domestic violence". Women's Web. 2010.
  59. Jump up^ University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (2007). "Types of Emotional Abuse".
  60. Jump up to:a b c d Adams, A. E.; Sullivan, C. M.; Bybee, D.; Greeson, M. R. (2008). "Development of the Scale of Economic Abuse". Violence Against Women 14 (5): 563–588.doi:10.1177/1077801208315529PMID 18408173. edit
  61. Jump up to:a b c Brewster, M. P. (2003). Journal of Family Violence 18 (4): 207–217. doi:10.1023/A:1024064214054. edit
  62. Jump up to:a b Sanders, Cynthia. "Organizing for Economic Empowerment of Battered Women: Women’s Savings Accounts". Center for Social Development, George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University.
  63. Jump up^ "International Domestic Violence Issues". Sanctuary for Families. 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  64. Jump up^ "Violence Against Women and "Honor" Crimes"Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2001-04-06.
  65. Jump up^ "Cambodian victim on her acid attack"BBC News. 2010-03-21. Archived from the original on 25 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-23.
  66. Jump up^ Vij, Krishan (2003). Textbook of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology : Principles and Practice, 5th Edition. Elsevier India. p. 462. ISBN 978-81-312-2684-1.
  67. Jump up^ Swanson, Jordan (Spring 2002). "Acid attacks: Bangladesh’s efforts to stop the violence."Harvard Health Policy Review 3(1). p. 3. Retrieved 2008-06-18
  68. Jump up to:a b c Bandyopadhyay, Mridula and Mahmuda Rahman Khan, 'Loss of face: violence against women in South Asia' in Lenore Manderson, Linda Rae Bennett (eds) Violence Against Women in Asian Societies (Routledge, 2003), ISBN 978-0-7007-1741-5
  69. Jump up to:a b " - Bangladesh combats an acid onslaught against women - November 11, 2000". Archived from the original on September 22, 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  70. Jump up^ Bahl, Taru & M.H. Syed (2004). Encyclopaedia of the Muslim World. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. ISBN 978-81-261-1419-1.
  71. Jump up^ "Acid attacks in Pakistan: A sorry litany of male egotism". Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  72. Jump up^ "Longueuil Woman Burned And In Coma After Acid Attack". Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  73. Jump up^ "Nurbanu, Bangladeshi Woman, Forced To Return To Husband After Acid Attack (WARNING: DISTURBING IMAGES)". Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  74. Jump up^ Scholte, Marianne (2006-03-17). "Acid Attacks in Bangladesh: A Voice for the Victims"Spiegel Online. Retrieved 2008-03-21.
  75. Jump up^ "Lakhani, Avnita, 'Bride Burning: The Elephant in the Room Is Out of Control'". Rutgers University. 2005.
  76. Jump up^ Mydans, Seth (2001-07-22). "Vengeance Destroys Faces, and Souls, in Cambodia"The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-08-29.
  77. Jump up^ Ermachild Chavis, Melody, Meena, Heroine of Afghanistan (St Martin's Press, 2003), ISBN 978-0-312-30689-2
  78. Jump up^ A. Carlson Whalen, Mother Earth and the Gene Machines(Vantage Press, 2006), ISBN 978-0-533-15339-8
  79. Jump up^ Forero, Juan (August 3, 2012). "Acid attacks in Colombia reflect rage". Washington Post. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
  80. Jump up^
  81. Jump up^ "Lakhani, Avnita, 'Bride Burning: The Elephant in the Room Is Out of Control'". Rutgers University. 2005.
  82. Jump up^ "Ethics - Honour crimes". BBC. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  83. Jump up^ Harter, Pascale (2011-06-14). "BBC News - Libya rape victims 'face honour killings'" Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  84. Jump up^ Jordan, Mary (21 August 2008). "Searching for Freedom, Chained by the Law"The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  85. Jump up^ Ernesto Londoño (2012-09-09). "Afghanistan sees rise in ‘dancing boys’ exploitation"The Washington Post (DEHRAZI, Afghanistan).
  86. Jump up^ "Home". AIDSPortal. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  87. Jump up to:a b "Iran" Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  88. Jump up^ "United Nations Human Rights Website - Treaty Bodies Database - Document - Summary Record - Kuwait". Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  89. Jump up^ "Culture of Maldives". Every Culture. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  90. Jump up^ Nakim, Nora (9 August 2012). "Morocco: Should pre-marital sex be legal?"BBC. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  91. Jump up^ Interpol"
  92. Jump up^ "2010 Human Rights Report: Mauritania". 8 April 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  93. Jump up^ "Education in Dubai". Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  94. Jump up^ Judd, Terri; Sajn, Nikolina (10 July 2008). "Briton faces jail for sex on Dubai beach"The Independent. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  95. Jump up^ ""Sex outside of marriage is a criminal offense here," PH ambassador to Qatar warns Pinoys" 12 September 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  96. Jump up^ "Sudan must rewrite rape laws to protect victims". Reuters. 28 June 2007. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  97. Jump up^ "Women's Rights in the Middle East and North Africa - Yemen". Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  98. Jump up^
  99. Jump up^
  100. Jump up^
  101. Jump up to:a b
  102. Jump up^
  103. Jump up^ Maher, Ahmed (2013-06-20). "BBC News - Many Jordan teenagers 'support honour killings'" Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  104. Jump up^ "10 reasons why India has a sexual violence problem," The Washington Post, 29 December 2012.
  105. Jump up^
  106. Jump up^ "Lebanese women take on Muslim judges who call rape a 'marital right' -" Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  107. Jump up^ "Bioline International Official Site (site up-dated regularly)" Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  108. Jump up to:a b c Dodd, L. W. (2009). "Therapeutic groupwork with young children and mothers who have experienced domestic abuse".Educational Psychology in Practice 25: 21–36.doi:10.1080/02667360802697571. edit
  109. Jump up^ "Preventing and Mitigating the Effects of Childhood Violence and Trauma: An Interview With Carl C. Bell, MD". Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2013-04-17. Retrieved 2013-08-27.
  110. Jump up^ Lazenbatt, A.; Thompson-Cree, M. E. (2009). "Recognizing the co-occurrence of domestic and child abuse: A comparison of community- and hospital-based midwives". Health & Social Care in the Community 17 (4): 358. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2524.2009.00833.x. edit
  111. Jump up^ "Long-Term Expressive Therapy and Caregiver Support Improves Emotional Health of Low-Income Children Affected by Trauma". Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2013-10-24. Retrieved 2013-07-10.
  112. Jump up^ Sadeler, Christiane (1994). An ounce of prevention: The life stories and perceptions of men who sexually offended against children (M.A. thesis) Wilfrid Laurier University
  113. Jump up to:a b Damant, D.; Lapierre, S.; Lebossã©, C.; Thibault, S.; Lessard, G. ¨V.; Hamelin-Brabant, L.; Lavergne, C.; Fortin, A. ©E. (2010). "Women's abuse of their children in the context on domestic violence: Reflection from women's accounts". Child & Family Social Work 15: 12. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2206.2009.00632.x. edit
  114. Jump up^ Lehmann, Peter John (1995). Children who witness mother-assault: An expander post-traumatic stress disorder conceptualization (M.A. thesis) Wilfrid Laurier University
  115. Jump up^ Schechter DS, Willheim E, McCaw J, Turner JB, Myers MM, Zeanah CH (2011). The relationship of violent fathers, post-traumatically stressed mothers, and symptomatic children in a preschool-age inner-city pediatrics clinic sample. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(18), 3699–3719.
  116. Jump up^ National Standards for Working with Children Exposed to Domestic and Family Violence
  117. Jump up^ Act As One. Retrieved on 2011-12-23.
  118. Jump up to:a b Jones Rf, 3.; Horan, D. L. (1997). "The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: A decade of responding to violence against women". International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 58 (1): 43–50. doi:10.1016/S0020-7292(97)02863-4PMID 9253665. edit
  119. Jump up^ Berrios, D. C.; Grady, D. (1991). "Domestic violence. Risk factors and outcomes". The Western journal of medicine 155 (2): 133–135. PMC 1002942PMID 1926841. edit
  120. Jump up^ Barnett, O. W. (2001). "Why Battered Women Do Not Leave, Part 2: External Inhibiting Factors--Social Support and Internal Inhibiting Factors". Trauma, Violence, & Abuse 2: 3–1.doi:10.1177/1524838001002001001. edit
  121. Jump up^ Vitanza, S.; Vogel, L. C.; Marshall, L. L. (1995). "Distress and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in abused women".Violence and victims 10 (1): 23–34. PMID 8555116. edit
  122. Jump up to:a b "Stop Violence Against Women". 2010.
  123. Jump up to:a b "American Civil Liberties Union Women's Rights Project". 2007.
  124. Jump up^ Berry, Dawn Bradley (1998). The Domestic Violence Sourcebook. Los Angeles: Lowell House. pp. 117–120.ISBN 978-1-56565-873-8.
  125. Jump up^ Keeshin, B. R.; Cronholm, P. F.; Strawn, J. R. (19 December 2011). "Physiologic Changes Associated With Violence and Abuse Exposure: An Examination of Related Medical Conditions". Trauma, Violence, & Abuse 13 (1): 41–56.doi:10.1177/1524838011426152.
  126. Jump up^ "Domestic Violence". American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
  127. Jump up to:a b c d e f Iliffe, G.; Steed, L. G. (2000). "Exploring the Counselor's Experience of Working with Perpetrators and Survivors of Domestic Violence". Journal of Interpersonal Violence 15 (4): 393. doi:10.1177/088626000015004004. edit
  128. Jump up to:a b Koocher, G; Keith-Spiegel (1998). Ethics in psychology. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509201-5.
  129. Jump up^ Freudenberger, H. J.; Robbins, A. (1979). "The hazards of being a psychoanalyst". Psychoanalytic review 66 (2): 275–296.PMID 112612. edit
  130. Jump up^ SunnyKids annual report
  131. Jump up^ SunnyKids Australia.
  132. Jump up^ Patrick, C. J. (2008). "Psychophysiological correlates of aggression and violence: An integrative review". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363(1503): 2543–2555. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0028.PMC 2606710PMID 18434285. edit
  133. Jump up^ Kalra, Michelle (1996). Juvenile delinquency and adult aggression against women (M.A. thesis) Wilfrid Laurier University
  134. Jump up^ Hamberger, L. K.; Hastings, J. E. (1986). "Personality correlates of men who abuse their partners: A cross-validation study". Journal of Family Violence 1 (4): 323.doi:10.1007/BF00978276. edit
  135. Jump up^ Hamberger, L. K.; Hastings, J. E. (1991). "Personality correlates of men who batter and nonviolent men: Some continuities and discontinuities". Journal of Family Violence 6(2): 131. doi:10.1007/BF00978715. edit
  136. Jump up^ Hart, S. D.; Dutton, D. G.; Newlove, T. (1993). "The Prevalence of Personality Disorder Among Wife Assaulters". Journal of Personality Disorders 7 (4): 329.doi:10.1521/pedi.1993.7.4.329. edit
  137. Jump up^ Dutton, D. G., S. K. Golant (1995). The Batterer: A Psychological Profile. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-03387-3OCLC 243827535.
  138. Jump up^ Dutton, D. G.; Starzomski, A. J. (1993). "Borderline personality in perpetrators of psychological and physical abuse". Violence and victims 8 (4): 326–337. PMID 8060906. edit
  139. Jump up^ Gelles (1997), pp. 126–127
  140. Jump up^ Steele BF (1974). "A Psychiatric Study of Parents Who Abuse Infants and Small Children". In Kempe CH, Helfer RE. The Battered Child (2nd ed.). Jossey-Bass. pp. 89–134. ISBN 0-226-32629-2.
  141. Jump up^ Straus MA (1980). "A Sociological Perspective on the Causes of Family Violence". In Green MR. Violence and the Family. Westview. ISBN 0-385-14259-5OCLC 5725780.
  142. Jump up^ Mental disorder and violence
  143. Jump up^ Worell, Judith (2001). Encyclopedia of Women and Gender 1. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 183. ISBN 0-12-227245-5.
  144. Jump up^ First, pp. 164, 166
  145. Jump up^ First, p. 163
  146. Jump up to:a b c First, p. 166
  147. Jump up to:a b c First, pp. 167–168
  148. Jump up to:a b Roach, J. (2011). "Evolution and the Prevention of Violent Crime". Psychology 02 (4): 393–357.doi:10.4236/psych.2011.24062. edit
  149. Jump up to:a b Goetz, A. T. (2010). "The evolutionary psychology of violence". Psicothema 22 (1): 15–21. PMID 20100422. edit
  150. Jump up to:a b Shorey, R.C., Cornelius, T.L. and Bell, K.M. (2008). "Behavioral Theory and Dating Violence: A Framework for Prevention Programming". Journal of Behavior Analysis of Offender and Victim: Treatment and Prevention 1 (4): 298–311.
  151. Jump up^ Bonem, M., Stanely- Kime, K.L. and Corbin, M. (2008). "A behavioral approach to domestic violence". Journal of Behavior Analysis of Offender and Victim: Treatment and Prevention 1 (4): 210–213.
  152. Jump up^ Haugan, Grethemor Skagseth and Nøttestad, Jim AageNorway : Treatment Program For Men Who Batter. Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Trondheim, Norway
  153. Jump up^ Goode, William (1971). "Force and Violence in the Family".Journal of Marriage and the Family (National Council on Family Relations) 33 (4): 624–36. doi:10.2307/349435.JSTOR 349435.
  154. Jump up^ Kalmuss, D. S. and Straus, M. A. (1995). "Wife's Marital Dependency and Wife Abuse". In Straus, M. A., Gelles, R. J. and Smith Ch. Physical Violence in American Families. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 1-56000-828-8.
  155. Jump up^ Kurz, D. (1992). "Battering and the Criminal Justice System: A Feminist View". In Buzawa, E. S., C. G. Buzawa. Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal Justice Response. Auburn House. ISBN 0865690014.
  156. Jump up^ Wallace, pp. 184–185
  157. Jump up^ "Power and Control Wheel" (PDF). Domestic Abuse Intervention Project. Archived from the original on 2010-06-01. Retrieved 2007-11-27.
  158. Jump up^ Gelles (1997), p. 128
  159. Jump up^ Seltzer, Judith A., Debra Kalmuss (1988). "Socialization and Stress Explanations for Spouse Abuse". Social Forces(University of North Carolina Press) 67 (2): 473–91.doi:10.2307/2579191JSTOR 2579191.
  160. Jump up^ Aneshensel, C. S. (1992). "Social Stress: Theory and Research". Annual Review of Sociology 18: 15–38.doi:10.1146/ edit
  161. Jump up to:a b Jewkes, R. (2002). "Intimate partner violence: Causes and prevention". The Lancet 359 (9315): 1423–1429.doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08357-5PMID 11978358. edit
  162. Jump up^ Hotaling, G. T.; Sugarman, D. B. (1986). "An analysis of risk markers in husband to wife violence: The current state of knowledge". Violence and victims 1 (2): 101–124.PMID 3154143. edit
  163. Jump up^ Murphy, C. M.; Meyer, S. L.; O'Leary, K. D. (1993). "Family of origin violence and MCMI-II psychopathology among partner assaultive men". Violence and victims 8 (2): 165–176.PMID 8193057. edit
  164. Jump up^ Doumas, D.; Margolin, G.; John, R. S. (1994). "The intergenerational transmission of aggression across three generations". Journal of Family Violence 9 (2): 157.doi:10.1007/bf01531961. edit
  165. Jump up^ Bancroft, L (2002). Why does he do that? Inside the minds of angry and controlling menBerkley BooksISBN 0425191656.
  166. Jump up^ Power and Control Wheel. National Center on Domestic and Sexual Violence. Retrieved 2011-11-18.
  167. Jump up^ Twohey, Megan (January 2, 2009). "How can domestic abuse be stopped?"Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  168. Jump up^ Whitaker, D. J.; Haileyesus, T.; Swahn, M.; Saltzman, L. S. (2007). "Differences in Frequency of Violence and Reported Injury Between Relationships with Reciprocal and Nonreciprocal Intimate Partner Violence". American Journal of Public Health 97(5): 941–947. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2005.079020.PMC 1854883PMID 17395835. edit
  169. Jump up to:a b c Chan, Ko Ling (2011). "Gender Differences in Self-Reports of Intimate Partner Violence: A Review"Aggression and Violent Behavior (Elsevier16 (2): 167–175.doi:10.1016/j.avb.2011.02.008. Retrieved March 22, 2013.
  170. Jump up^ Johnson, M. P.; Ferraro, K. J. (2000). "Research on Domestic Violence in the 1990s: Making Distinctions". Journal of Marriage and Family 62 (4): 948. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00948.x. edit
  171. Jump up to:a b Dobash, R. P.; Dobash, R. E.; Wilson, M.; Daly, M. (1992). "The Myth of Sexual Symmetry in Marital Violence". Social Problems 39: 71. doi:10.1525/sp.1992.39.1.03x0064l. edit
  172. Jump up^ Hamel, John; Tonia L. Nicholls (2007). Family Interventions in Domestic Violence: A Handbook of Gender-Inclusive Theory and Treatment. New York: Springer. p. 6. ISBN 0-8261-0245-X. "...there is ample cross-cultural evidence of much higher rates of physical aggression and somewhat higher rates of verbal aggression by men."
  173. Jump up to:a b Compton, Michael T. (2010). Clinical Manual of Prevention in Mental Health (1st ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing. p. 245. ISBN 978-1-58562-347-1. "Women are more often the victims of domestic violence than men and are more likely to suffer injuries and health consequences..."
  174. Jump up to:a b Brinkerhoff, David B.; Lynn K. White, Suzanne T. Ortega, Rose Weitz (2008). Essentials of Sociology (7th ed.). Thomson/Wadsworth. p. 13. ISBN 0-495-09636-9. "A conflict analysis of domestic violence, for example, would begin by noting that women are battered far more often and far more severely than are men..."
  175. Jump up^ Parsons, Dana (10 April 2002). "Pitcher's Case Throws a Curve at Common Beliefs About Abuse"L.A. Times. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
  176. Jump up^ Tjaden, Patricia; Thoennes, Nancy (November 2000). "Full Report of the Prevalence, Incidence, and Consequences of Violence Against Women". National Institute of Justice, United States Department of Justice.
  177. Jump up^ Kevin Smith (Ed.), Kathryn Coleman, Simon Eder and Philip Hall (2011). "Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence 2009/10". Home Office. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
  178. Jump up^ Schwartz, Martin D. (1987). "Gender and injury in spousal assault". Sociological Focus 20: 67. JSTOR 20831423.
  179. Jump up^ Intimate Partner Violence, 1993–2001. U.S. Department of Justice. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Crime Data Brief. February 2003
  180. Jump up^ "CDC – Injury – Intimate Partner Violence Consequences". 2009-12-14. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
  181. Jump up^ "Domestic Abuse Intervention Programs, Home of the Duluth Model". Retrieved 2010-04-26.
  182. Jump up^ "All domestic abuse deaths to have multi-agency review". BBC. 13 April 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
  183. Jump up^ Nationale sur les Morts Violentes au sien de Couple.Ministère de l'Intérieur, Delegation aux Victimes. 2008.
  184. Jump up^ "A/RES/48/104. Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women". Retrieved 2010-04-26.
  185. Jump up^ "Addressing Gender-Based Violence: Advancing Human Rights". UNFPA. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
  186. Jump up^ Jacobson, Neil S.; Gottman, John M. (1998). When Men Batter Women: New Insights into Ending Abusive Relationships. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-81447-1.
  187. Jump up^
  188. Jump up^ Kumar, A. (2012). "Domestic Violence against Men in India: A Perspective". Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 22 (3): 290–296.doi:10.1080/10911359.2012.655988. edit
  189. Jump up^ Felson and Pare, (2007) p. 436
  190. Jump up^ Kingsnorth and MacIntosh, (2007) p. 461
  191. Jump up^ Aguinaldo, Jeffrey (2000). Partner abuse in gay male relationships: Challenging 'we are family (M.A. thesis) Wilfrid Laurier University
  192. Jump up^ Burke, L. K.; Follingstad, D. R. (1999). "Violence in lesbian and gay relationships: Theory, prevalence, and correlational factors".Clinical psychology review 19 (5): 487–512. doi:10.1016/S0272-7358(98)00054-3PMID 10467488. edit
  193. Jump up to:a b c Lehman, Mark (1997). "At the End of the Rainbow: A Report on Gay Male Domestic Violence and Abuse" (PDF). Minnesota Center Against Violence and Abuse. Retrieved 2007-12-30.
  194. Jump up^ Fagan, Jeffrey (1995). "Criminalization of Domestic Violence: Promises and Limits" (PDF). Research Report. Conference on Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation. National Institute of Justice.
  195. Jump up^ Boyle, A.; Robinson, S.; Atkinson, P. (2004). "Domestic violence in emergency medicine patients". Emergency medicine journal : EMJ 21 (1): 9–13. doi:10.1136/emj.2003.007591.PMC 1756378PMID 14734366. edit
  196. Jump up^ Gerbert, B.; Caspers, N.; Bronstone, A.; Moe, J.; Abercrombie, P. (1999). "A qualitative analysis of how physicians with expertise in domestic violence approach the identification of victims".Annals of internal medicine 131 (8): 578–584. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-131-8-199910190-00005PMID 10523218. edit
  197. Jump up^ University of Minnesota Duluth conceptual framework
  198. Jump up^ "Power and Control Film"Power and Control: Domestic Violence in America. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
  199. Jump up^ Domestic Abuse Intervention Project: History
  200. Jump up^ "The Duluth Model". Minnesota Program Development, Inc. Archived from the original on 28 August 2008.
  201. Jump up^ Garner, J. and F. Clemmer (1986). Danger to Police in Domestic Disturbances—A New Look. Bureau of Justice Statistics.
  202. Jump up^ Stanford, M. R. and B. I. Mowry (1990). "Domestic Disturbance Danger Rate". Journal of Police Science and Administration 17: 244–9.
  203. Jump up to:a b Lawson, D. M. (2003). "Incidence, Explanations, and Treatment of Partner Violence". Journal of Counseling & Development 81: 19–99. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6678.2003.tb00221.x. edit
  204. Jump up^ Campbell, J. C. (2005). "Commentary on Websdale: Lethality Assessment Approaches: Reflections on Their Use and Ways Forward". Violence Against Women 11 (9): 1206–1213.doi:10.1177/1077801205278860PMID 16049107. edit
  205. Jump up^ Campbell, J. C. (2001). "Safety Planning Based on Lethality Assessment for Partners of Batterers in Intervention Programs".Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma 5 (2): 129–143.doi:10.1300/J146v05n02_08. edit
  206. Jump up^ Andrews, D; Bonta (1994). The psychology of criminal conduct. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing Co. ISBN 0-87084-712-0.
  207. Jump up^ Tharp, A. T., Schumacher, J. A., Samper, R. E., McLeish, A. C., & Coffey, S. F. (2012). Relative importance of emotional dysregulation, hostility, and impulsiveness in predicting intimate partner violence perpetrated by men in alcohol treatment.Psychology of Women Quarterly, 37, 51-60.
  208. Jump up^ Colorado Domestic Violence Offender Management Board (2010). "Standards for Treatment with Court Ordered Domestic Violence Offenders"Revised 5.0 offender treatment standards. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
  209. Jump up^ app to help physicians screen for domestic abuse. (2011-10-20). Retrieved on 2011-12-23.
  210. Jump up^ The R3 app and reviews, publisher, Retrieved on (2012-04-23). Retrieved on 2012-06-25.
  211. Jump up^ Johnson, J. K.; Haider, F.; Ellis, K.; Hay, D. M.; Lindow, S. W. (2003). "The prevalence of domestic violence in pregnant women". BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology 110 (3): 272–275. doi:10.1046/j.1471-0528.2003.02216.xPMID 12628266. edit
  212. Jump up^ Stephenson, R.; Koenig, M. A.; Acharya, R.; Roy, T. K. (2008). "Domestic violence, contraceptive use, and unwanted pregnancy in rural India". Studies in family planning 39 (3): 177–186.doi:10.1111/j.1728-4465.2008.165.xPMC 2715158.PMID 18853639. edit
  213. Jump up^ Domestic Violence and Birth Control Sabotage: A Report from the Teen Parent Project, Center for Impact Research, 1999.
  214. Jump up^ Mezey, G. C.; Bewley, S. (1997). "Domestic violence and pregnancy". BMJ 314 (7090): 1295.doi:10.1136/bmj.314.7090.1295PMC 2126542.PMID 9158458. edit
  215. Jump up^ National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Summary Report, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, p. 48.
  216. Jump up^ Middlebrooks JS, Audage AC, (2008). The Effects of Childhood Stress on Health Across the Lifespan. Centers for Disease Control.
  217. Jump up^ Koss, M. P.; Heslet, L. (1992). "Somatic consequences of violence against women". Archives of family medicine 1 (1): 53–59. doi:10.1001/archfami.1.1.53PMID 1341588. edit
  218. Jump up^ Schechter, D. S.; Coates, S. W.; Kaminer, T.; Coots, T.; Zeanah, C. H.; Davies, M.; Schonfeld, I. S.; Marshall, R. D.; Liebowitz, M. R.; Trabka, K. A.; McCaw, J. E.; Myers, M. M. (2008). "Distorted Maternal Mental Representations and Atypical Behavior in a Clinical Sample of Violence-Exposed Mothers and Their Toddlers". Journal of Trauma & Dissociation 9 (2): 123–147.doi:10.1080/15299730802045666PMC 2577290.PMID 18985165. edit
  219. Jump up^ Schechter, D. S.; Zygmunt, A.; Coates, S. W.; Davies, M.; Trabka, K. A.; McCaw, J.; Kolodji, A.; Robinson, J. L. (2007). "Caregiver traumatization adversely impacts young children's mental representations on the MacArthur Story Stem Battery".Attachment & Human Development 9 (3): 187–205.doi:10.1080/14616730701453762PMC 2078523.PMID 18007959. edit
  220. Jump up^ Corso, P.; Mercy, J.; Simon, T.; Finkelstein, E.; Miller, T. (2007). "Medical Costs and Productivity Losses Due to Interpersonal and Self-Directed Violence in the United States". American Journal of Preventive Medicine 32 (6): 474–482.doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2007.02.010PMID 17533062. edit
  221. Jump up^ Dolezal T, McCollum D, Callahan M (20098). Hidden Costs in Health Care: The Economic Impact of Violence and Abuse. Academy on Violence and Abuse.
  222. Jump up^
  223. Jump up^ Altstein,Howard;Simon, Rita James (2003). Global perspectives on social issues: marriage and divorce. Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books. p. 11. ISBN 0-7391-0588-4.
  224. Jump up^ "Jordan quashes 'honour crimes' law"Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2008-09-27.
  225. Jump up^ "Jordan: Special Report on Honour Killings". Retrieved 2009-02-08.
  226. Jump up^ "BBC News - The silent nightmare of domestic violence in Russia" 2013-03-01. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  227. Jump up^ "Africa | Ethiopian women are most abused". BBC News. 2006-10-11. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  228. Jump up^ Khoury, Jack (2012-04-30). "Study: Most Bedouin victims of domestic violence believe it's a 'decree from God' Israel News Broadcast". Haaretz. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  229. Jump up^ Author: Katalin Fabian. "Mobilizing against Domestic Violence in Postcommunist Europe: Successes and Continuing Challenges | European Conference on Politics and Gender". Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  230. Jump up^ 2013-05-30 (2013-05-30). "Domestic violence victim wins European Court of Human Rights case against Lithuania |" Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  231. Jump up^ "Lithuania - EU Court Judgment - Failure to Investigate Domestic Violence". 2013-03-28. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  232. Jump up^ "Full Report of the Prevalence, Incidence, and Consequences of Violence Against Women: Findings From the National Violence Against Women Survey | National Institute of Justice" Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  233. Jump up^ "Domestic Violence: Fast Facts on Domestic Violence". Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  234. Jump up^ "South Carolina Legislature Mobile". Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  235. Jump up^
  236. Jump up^ Watts, C.; Zimmerman, C. (2002). "Violence against women: Global scope and magnitude". The Lancet 359 (9313): 1232–1237. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08221-1.PMID 11955557. edit
  237. Jump up^ Heise, Lori; Ellsberg, Mary; Gottemoeller, Megan. 1999. "Ending Violence Against Women." Population Reports, Series L. No. 11.
  238. Jump up^ References Examining Assaults By Women On Their Spouses Or Male Partners: An Annotated Bibliography. Last updated: May 2011. Retrieved on 2011-12-23.
  239. Jump up^ Bachman, Ronet and Linda E. Saltzman (1995). Violence against Women: Estimates from the Redesigned Survey(PDFNCJ 154348). Bureau of Justice Statistics.
  240. Jump up^ "Domestic Violence", Meharry Medical College.
  241. Jump up^ "Understanding Intimate Partner Violence". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011. p. 1. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
  242. Jump up^ Andersson N, Nahwegahbow A (2010). "Family violence and the need for prevention research in First Nations, Inuit and Métis communities. Pimatisiwin". Journal of Aboriginal and Indigenous Community Health 8 (2): 9–33. PMC 2962655.PMID 20975851.
  243. Jump up^ "Independent Appeal: Safe haven for women beaten and abused in Kashmir". The Independent. December 28, 2009.
  244. Jump up^ Constable, Pamela. "For Some Muslim Wives, Abuse Knows No Borders." Washington Post (May 8, 2007).
  245. Jump up^ Alexander, Doug. "Addressing Violence Against Palestinian Women". International Development Research Centre (June 23, 2000).
  246. Jump up^ "PAKISTAN: Domestic violence endemic, but awareness slowly rising". IRIN UN. March 11, 2008.
  247. Jump up^ "BBC News - Pakistani women shot in 'honour killings'" 2013-06-27. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  248. Jump up^
  249. Jump up^ Ash, Lucy (2003-07-16). "Programmes | Crossing Continents | India's dowry deaths". BBC News. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  250. Jump up^ "Honour killing: SC notice to Centre, Haryana and 6 other states - Times Of India" 2010-06-21. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  251. Jump up^ Chaitra Arjunpuri. "'Honour killings' bring dishonour to India - Features". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  252. Jump up^ "Behind the veil"The Economist. 2011-05-12.
  253. Jump up^ "Half of Nigeria's women experience domestic violence". Afrol News.
  254. Jump up^ Widespread violence against women in Africa documented. Source: UNFPA.
  255. Jump up^ "Domestic Violence in Australia—an Overview of the Issues". Parliamentary Library.
  256. Jump up to:a b "Domestic violence"Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved October 31, 2011. "In the early 1800s most legal systems implicitly accepted wife-beating as a husband’s right, part of his entitlement to control over the resources and services of his wife."
  257. Jump up to:a b Daniels, Cynthia R. (1997). Feminists Negotiate the State: The Politics of Domestic Violence. Lanham: Univ. Press of America. pp. 5–10. ISBN 0-7618-0884-1.
  258. Jump up^ The Massachusetts Body of Liberties (1641) at Hanover Historical Texts Project.
  259. Jump up^ Gordon, Linda (2002). Heroes of Their Own Lives: The Politics and History of Family Violence. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. pp. 253–255. ISBN 0-252-07079-8.
  260. Jump up^ Kleinberg, S. J. (1999). Women in the United States, 1830–1945. Rutgers University Press. p. 143. ISBN 0-8135-2729-5.
  261. Jump up^ Pleck, Elizabeth (1989). "Criminal Approaches to Family Violence". Family Violence 11.
  262. Jump up^ Pleck, Elizabeth (1979). "Wife Beating in Nineteenth-Century America". Victimology: an International Journal 4: 64–65.
  263. Jump up^ Arnot, Margaret L.; Usborne, Cornelie (2003). Gender and crime in modern Europe ([Online-Ausg.] ed.). London: Routledge. p. 123. ISBN 1-85728-746-0.
  264. Jump up^ Green, Nicholas St. John. 1879. Criminal Law Reports: Being Reports of Cases Determined in the Federal and State Courts of the United States, and in the Courts of England, Ireland, Canada, etc. with notes. Hurd and Houghton. "The cases in the American courts are uniform against the right of the husband to use any [physical] chastisement, moderate or otherwise, toward the wife, for any purpose."
  265. Jump up^ Feder, Lynette (1999). Women and Domestic Violence: An Interdisciplinary Approach. New York: Haworth Press. p. 22.ISBN 0-7890-0667-7.
  266. Jump up^ National Women's Aid
  267. Jump up^ House of Commons Sitting (1973) Battered Women.
  268. Jump up^ Cruel Compassion: Psychiatric Control of Society's Unwanted - Thomas Stephen Szasz - Google Cărţ Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  269. Jump up^ Durrant, Joan E. (1996). "The Swedish Ban on Corporal Punishment: Its History and Effects"Family Violence Against Children: A Challenge for Society. Prevention and Intervention in Childhood and Adolescence. Berlin, New York: Walter De Gruyter Inc. pp. 19–25. ISBN 3-11-014996-6.


Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Domestic violence.
Domestic violence
Domestic violence in Africa
Domestic violence in Asia
Domestic violence in Europe
Domestic violence in North America
Domestic violence in Oceania
Domestic violence in South America